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BUDDHIST DICTIONARY

Appendix

Attempt at a chronological fixing of terms not found, or not found in this form or meaning, in the oldest parts of the Sutta Pitaka.

akusala-sādhārana-cetasika: This term is probably used for the first time in Abh. S., though already in Vis.M. XIV the 4 cetasika in question are mentioned amongst the mental factors associated with each of the 12 akusala-cittas (Tab. I, 22-33), while in the Abhidhamma Piṭaka (Dhs. žž 365-429) uddhacca is found only in the last of the 12 cittas, missing in all the remaining 11 cittas.

ānantarika-kamma: This term seems to be used for the first time in Kath. (190) of the Abh. Canon; the 5 crimes mentioned, however, are already enumerated and explained in the old Sutta texts (e.g. A.V, 129), as is to be seen from the main part of this work.

ārammaṇa: s. paccaya, 2.

avacara: kāmāvacara is already met with in the oldest sutta texts (e.g. D. 1). Rūpāvacara and arūpāvacara, however, occur probably for the first time in Pts.M. (I. 83ff.), while in the Abhidhamma Canon and the Com. all the 3 terms are frequently mentioned and explained.

āvajjana: s. citta-vīthi.

avyākata: This term in the sense of 'amoral' or 'kammically neutral', does not occur in the old sutta texts, while it is found in Pts.M. (e.g. I, 79ff). It plays an important role in the Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs.) and the philosophical commentaries.

āyūhana: probably met with for the first time in Pts.M. (I . 10f.).

 

bhava: The 2-fold division, kamma and upapatti, is probably found for the first time in Vibh. of the Abh. Canon, but it expresses throughout the genuine teaching of the suttas.

bhāva: as an isolated word, signifying-the physical nature or faculties of sex, probably occurs only in the Com. The expression itthibhāva and purisabhāva, with the meaning of 'being a man', or 'being a woman', or after ˝atvā, etc., as for instance tassā itthibhāvaṃ ˝atvā: 'knowing her to be a woman': such expressions are often found in the oldest sutta texts.

bhavaṅga-sotā, -citta: These 2 compound terms belong exclusively to the exegetical literature, while the term bhavaṅga is several times, briefly and unexplained, mentioned in the Patth. of the Abh. Canon, as though already known at that time.

 

carita: rāga-c., dosa-c., buddhi-c., etc., are only to be met with in the Com. and Vis.M.

cāritta- and vāritta-sila: are only found in the Com., as Vis.M. 1, etc., but the teaching indicated by it is frequently mentioned in the old sutta texts as karanīya and akaranīya (e.g. A. II, 16).

cetasika: This term oceurs often in the old sutta texts, but only as adj. (e.g. cetasikaṃ sukhaṃ, etc.) or, at times, used as a sing. neut. noun (e.g. D. 1; p. 213, PTS). As a designation for mental factors, or concomitants of consciousness (citta-saṃpayuttā dhammā), it is frequently met with in Dhs. (ž 1189, 1512) as cetasika-dhamma, while in Vis.M., Abh. S., etc., cetasika is used also as a neuter noun, in the sense of mental phenomenon.

citta-lahutā, -mudūta, -kamma˝˝atā, -pāgu˝˝atā, -ujukatā: s. lahutā.

citta-vīthi, as well as all terms for the various functions within the processes of conseiousness, such as āvajjana-citta, sampaticchana, santīraṇa, votthapana, javana, tadārammaṇa, bhavaṅga, cuti: none of these terms is found in the Sutta Canon. except javana, in Pts.M. Even in the Ahh. Canon (e.g. Patth) only javana and bhavaṅga are twice or thrice briefly mentioned. The stages, however, must have been more or less known. Cf. e.g Patth: ''Cakkhu-vi˝˝āṇam taṃ saṃpayuttakā ca dhammā (= cetasikā) mano-dhātuyā (performing the sampaṭicchana-function), taṃ saṃpayuttakāna˝ ca dhammānaṃ (cetasikānani) anantara-paccayena paccayo. Mano-dhātu ... manovi˝˝āṇa-dhātuyā (performing the santīraṇa and votthapana function).... Purimā purimā kusalā dhammā (javanā) pacchimānaṃ pacchimānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ (javanacittānaṃ) anantara-paccayena paccayo... avyākatānaṃ dhammānaṃ (tadārammaṇa- and bhavaṅga-cittānaṃ....)."

cuti-citta: s. citta-vīthi.

 

dhātu-vavatthāna: This term is first used in Pts.M. while the subject in question is often treated in the old sutta texts (e.g. M. 28, 62, 140, etc.). Cf. sammasana.

dhutaṅga: This compound term is used only in the Com. The only place in the suttas where the first part, dhuta, is used in the above sense, is found in S. XIV. The names of the performers of these 13 ascetical exercises, however, are all mentioned in the suttas, but scattered here and there, for instance: pamsukūlika, āra˝˝ika, piṇḍapātika, ekāsanika, tecīvarika, sapādānacārī, sosānika, abhhokāsika, nesajjika, yathāsanthatika, in M. 5, 113; A. V, 181-190, etc.; rukkhamūlika, khalupacchābhattika and pattapiṇḍika in A. V, 189f. etc.

 

gotrabhū: s. javana.

 

hasituppāda-citta: This term is used in Abh. S. for the citta, Tab. I, 72. This type of consciousness (the Buddha's smile) is often implied in the suttas.

 

iddhi: Most, or perhaps all, of the 10 terms listed at Vis.M. XII, as adhiṭṭhāna, etc., are absent in the older sutta texts. In Pts.M. (II, 205-214), however, they are enumerated in due order and minutely explained. The magical powers indicated by these terms are, nevertheless, for the most part explicitly described already in the oldest sutta texts. Cf. D. 34; M. 3; A. III, 99, etc.

indriya-samatta: This term is probably found for the first time in the Com., esp. Vis.M. IV. The rudiments of this doctrine, however, are already found in the old sutta texts, e.g. A. III, 100.

 

javana: The only reference in the Sutta Piṭaka is Pts.M. II, 73: kusalakammassa javana-khane, "in the impulsion-moment of a wholesome kamma." In the Abhidhamma Piṭaka it is briefly mentioned in the Patthāna, but without explanation, as if already known. The teaching of the flashing forth of 4 javana immediately before entering the jhāna or lokuttara-magga, i.e. parikamma, upacāra, anuloma, gotrabhū is, as such, without doubt a later development in the commentarial literature.

 

kalāpa: This doctrinal term, as well as the doctrine of the different corporeal units or groups, such as the suddhaṭṭhaka-k., jīvitanavaka-k., cakkhudasaka-k., etc. (s. Vis.M. XVIII), belong only to the later developments of exegetical literature, as Vis.M. etc.

kāma: Vatthu-k. and kilesa-k. are probably found for the first time in MNid. 1. They correspond to the pa˝ca kāmaguṇā (cakkhu-vi˝˝eyyā rūpā, etc.) and kāma-rāga in the older sutta texts (e.g A. VI, 68).

kamma: ahosi-, janaka-, garuka-, bahula-, upatthambhaka-, upaghātaka-, upapīlaka-, maraṇāsanna-, upacchedaka-k. None of these terms is found in the Sutta or Abh. Canon. They have been introduced by the commentators (e.g. in Abh. S. and Vis.M.) for the purpose of a systematical grouping of the various aspects and functions of kamma. The term katattā, however, occurs repeatedly in the Abh. Canon in such expressions as: 'Yasmiṃ samaye ... kusalassa kammassa katattā ... cakkhuvi˝˝āṇaṃ hoti....' (Dhs. ž 431); or: 'Yaṃ atthi rūpam kammassa katattā ....' (Dhs. ž 653); or 'katattā ca rūpānaṃ' (Patth.), etc.

kamma˝˝atā: s. lahutā.

kammaṭṭhānā: This term, as a designation for the meditation exercises (bhāvanā), is found only in the Com. In the suttas the word is only used in a concrete sense for 'field of activity or occupation', as agriculture, trade, etc.

katattā-kamma: s. kamma.

kāya-lahutā: -mudutā, -kamma˝˝atā, -pāgu˝˝atā, -ujukatā, s. lahutā.

khana: The 3 phases in a moment of consciousness, i.e. uppāda, ṭhiti, bhaṅga, are probably mentioned for the first time in the commentaries; but there is a close parallel in two sutta texts which may have been the source for that teaching of a three-phased moment of consciousness:

"There are 3 characteristics of what is conditioned (saṅkhatassa lakkhaṇā): an arising (uppādo) is apparent, a passing away (vayo) is apparent, a change in the existing (ṭhitassa a˝˝athattaṃ: Com. = ageing) is apparent" (A. III, 47). The same 3 phases are mentioned in S. XXII, 37, where they are applied to each of the 5 khandha.

kilesa: the 10 kilesa are probably for the first time enumerated and explained in Dhs. (žž 1229-1239). There they are, however, called kilesa-vatthu, which name (dasa kilesa-vatthu) is already mentioned in Pts I, 130, though there they are neither enumerated nor explained.

kiriya: (kiriyā, kriyā) citta is a term first used in the Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs. žž 566-582). It has an important place in post-canonical Abh. literature, e.g. Vis.M. XIV.

 

lahutā, mudutā, kamma˝˝atā: as rūpassa-, kāya-, or citta-, are for the first time found in the Abh. Canon, esp. Dhs. All, however, perhaps with the sole exception of pagu˝˝atā, are implied in the Sutta Canon, e.g. 'citte mudu-bhūte kammanīye' (M 4); 'lahu-sa˝˝a˝ ca kāye okkamitvā' (S. LI. 22); 'cittaṃ ujukam akamsu' (S. I. 26; PTS). Kāya-passaddhi and citta-passaddhi, however, are well known in the old sutta texts in this connection.

 

manodvārāvajjana: s. citta-vīthi.

mudutā: s. lahutā.

 

˝āṇa: Of the 9 kinds of insight-knowledge constituting the paṭipadā-˝āṇadassana-visuddhi (s. Vis.M. XXI), the following 6 are, as such, enumerated and explained for the first time in Pts.M., namely: udayabbayānupassanā-˝āṇa (I. 54-57), bhaṅgānupassanā-˝āṇa, (ib. 57f.). bhayatupatthāna-˝āṇa (ib. 59f). muccitukamyatā-˝āṇa, paṭisankhā-˝āṇa, saṅkhārupekkhā-˝āṇa (ib. 60-65). The terms udayabbaya and bhaṅga, in connection with the 5 groups of existence, however, are often met with in the old sutta texts. Of the remaining 3 kinds of knowledge, ādīnavānupassanā, nibbidānupassanā and anuloma˝āṇa, the first 2 occur often in the old sutta texts, while anuloma-˝āṇa, though only briefly mentioned in the Abh. Canon (Patth.), plays a prominent part in the exegetical literature.

natthi-paccaya: s. paccaya.

n'eva-sekha-n'āsekha: While the terms sekha and asekha occur frequently in the old sutta texts (e.g. A. II, 4: 'sekho ca asekho ca imasmiṃ loke... āhuneyyā' etc.), the term n'eva-sekha-n'āsekha is perhaps mentioned for the first time in Pug. of the Abh. Canon.

nibbāna: The 2 terms kilesa- and khandha-parinibbāna (or nibbāna) are found only in the Com.; their corresponding 2 aspects sa-upādisesa and anupādisesa-nibbāna, however, are mentioned and explained in It. 44 of the Sutta Canon.

nimitta: As signifying the mental reflex-image occurring in meditation, this term, singly or in compounds (parikkamma-, uggaha-, patibhāga-n.), is found only in the Com., Vis.M., etc. The same holds good for kamma-nimitta, gati-nimitta.

nissarana-pahāna: s. pahāna.

nissaya, nissita: These two terms, in combination with taṇhā and diṭṭhi, belong probably, as such, to the commentarial literature, e.g. Vis.M. I.

niyāma: The compound words utu-, bīja-, kamma-, citta-, and dhamma-niyāma, probably occur for the first time in the Com. Niyāmatā, however, occurs often in the old sutta texts, e.g. 'thitā va sā dhātu dhammatthitatā dhammaniyāmata...' (A. III. 134. etc.)

niyata-micchādiṭṭhi: is apparently mentioned for the first time in Dhs. (e.g. ž 1028) of the Abh. As a name for the 10th and last of the akusala-kammapathas, it plays a prominent role in the Com.

 

paccaya: This term occurs often in the old sutta texts in such expressions as: 'ko hetu, ko paccayo', 'yaṃ yad eva paccayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati vi˝˝āṇaṃ', etc., or as abl. adverb in 'avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā'. All the 24 paccaya are for the first time enumerated, explained and applied to the phenomena of existence in the Abh. Canon (Patth). Of these 24 paccaya, 5 are already mentioned in Pts.M. (II, 49-54, 59f., 72-77), namely, sahajāta-, a˝˝ama˝˝a-, nissaya-, saṃpayutta-, vippayutta-paccaya.

1. Hetu is already used in the sutta texts as 'condition' in a general and indefinite way, as a synonym of paccaya. In the sense of kusala and akusala roots (mūla; s. M. 9), however, it is only found in the Abh. Canon and Com.

2. Ārammaṇa has in the 'sutta texts only the meaning of 'foundation', or 'basis', or 'dependent on', e.g. M. 21: 'tadārammaṇa˝ca sabbalokaṃ mettāsahagatena cetasā pharitvā....' or D.33; S.XXII.53: 'vi˝˝āṇaṃ ... rūpārammaṇaṃ ... vedanāram-manaṃ....' As term for the 6 objects, rūpārammaṇa, saddārammaṇa, etc.,

it is first used in the Abh. Canon, though the teaching of dependency of the 6 kinds of vi˝˝āṇa on the 6 sense-objects is an integral part of the suttas. Cf. e.g. M.38: 'cakkhu˝ca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati vi˝˝āṇam sota˝ca paṭicca sadde ca ...' etc.

3. Adhipati, as a philosophical term, occurs for the first time in the Abh. Canon (esp. Patth.). The 4 adhipati are in the suttas called iddhipāda (e.g. S. LI. 11). In the old sutta texts, 3 adhipateyya are however mentioned: atta-, loka-, dhamma- (A. III, 38).

4. & 5. Anantara- and samanantara-paccaya occur, as paccaya, for the first time in the Abh. Canon (esp. Patth.). In a veiled form, however, we find the first term in the old sutta texts (e.g. Ratana Sutta in Khp. and Sn.): 'samādhiṃ ānantarika˝˝amāhu': the concentration (associated with the arahatta-magga), which is called the 'immediate' condition (for arahatta-phala).

6. & 7. Sahajāta and a˝˝ama˝˝a-paccaya. Though these terms, as such, are not found in the older sutta texts, still the teaching of the conascent and mutual conditionedness of the 4 mental groups (vedanā, sa˝˝ā, saṅkhāra, vi˝˝āṇa) is taught in the old texts, e.g. M. 28, 43; S. XXII, etc.

8. Nissaya-paccaya is mentioned in Pts; s. first paragraph of this article, above.

9. Upanissaya-paccaya. Though this name is not found in the suttas, the teaching expressed thereby is, however, frequently met with there, sometimes even in the form of upanisā (apparently a contraction of upanissaya), e.g. S. XII, 23: 'Yaṃ pi'ssa taṃ bhikkhave khayasmiṃ khaye ˝āṇaṃ, taṃ sa-upanisaṃ vadāmi, no anupanisaṃ '. The terms pakati-, ārammaṇa- and anantara-upanissaya are later developments of the Abh. Com.

All the remaining terms are met with only in the Abh. literature though the substance is, perhaps in all cases, already dealt with in the old sutta texts.

pādaka-jjhāna: This term is not found in the Sutta Canon, nor apparently in the Abh. Canon, but very often used in the exegetical literature. The idea, however, expressed thereby, is implied in many places of the old sutta texts, e.g., A. IX, 36, where it is shown how the jhānas, one after the other, may serve as basis, or foundation (as mental object), for vipassanā. In many of the old sutta texts it is also shown how the 4th jhāna forms the foundation for the attainment of the 5 higher spiritual powers (abhi˝˝ā).

pāgu˝˝atā: s. lahutā.

pahāna: The 5 terms, as vikkhambhana, etc., are, as such, not found in the old sutta texts, but they are enumerated and explained already in Pts.M. (II. 179f.).

palibodha: This 10-fold group is perhaps for the first time mentioned in Khp. Com. and explained in Vis.M. III.

pa˝ca-dvārāvajjana: s. āvajjana.

paramattha: s. vohāra-desanā.

pāramī, pāramitā: Only the Com. deals with this subject, apart from the 3 apocryphal works, Buddhavaṃsa and Cariyapiṭaka, and the Jātaka.

paricchinnākāsa: This term is used in the Com. for the term ākāsa-kasiṇa used in the older sutta texts.

pari˝˝ā: ˝āta-, tīraṇa-, pahāna-p., belong to the exegetical literature, but they are already implied in Pts.M. I. 87: 'Abhi˝˝ā-pa˝˝ā ˝ātatthe ˝āṇaṃ, pari˝˝ā-pa˝˝ā tīranatthe ˝āṇaṃ, pahāna-pa˝˝ā pariccāgatthe ˝āṇaṃ ... ye ye dhammā abhi˝˝ātā honti, te te dhammā ˝āta honti ... tīritā ... pahīnā.'

pariyatti, patipatti, pativedha: The first of these 3 fundamental terms, especially in this 3-fold grouping, belongs to the commentarial literature, though the idea expressed thereby is often found in the suttas in such expressions as: 'dhammaṃ pariyāpunāti suttaṃ geyyaṃ veyyākaranaṃ ....' The 2 other terms are found separately in the suttas.

patipannaka: occurs in Pug. 17.

patipatti: s. pariyatti.

patisandhi: is chiefly a commentarial term; but it occurs several times in one of the later books of the Sutta Piṭaka, the Paṭisambhidā Magga (Pts.M. I, 11f, 52, 59f.; II, 72f.). The usual sutta term for 'rebirth' is punabbhava.

patisandhika: ahetu-, dvihetu-, and tihetu-p.: are purely commentarial terms. For paṭisandhi-citta, s. citta-vīthi.

pativedha: s. pariyatti.

pattidāna: This term is found only in the Com., but the belief expressed by it is several times mentioned in the older sutta texts. Cf. the main part of this work.

 

rūpa: the terms nipphanna-rūpa and rūpa-rūpa are used only in the Com., although sappaṭigha and pasāda are already found in the Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs. žž 585, 597f.), while upādinna occurs repeatedly in the old sutta texts, e.g. M. 28, apparently with the meaning given in the main part of this work. Cf. further upādā-rūpa.

 

samādhi: parikamma-, upacāra-, and appanā-s.: are found only in the Com.

sama-sīsī: This term seems to be met with for the first time in Pug. 19, while the person indicated is described in A., as is to be seen in the main part of this work.

samatha-yānika: s. sukkha-vipassaka.

sammasana: This term, as noun, occurs probably for the first time in Pts.M. I. 53, although as a verb it is found already in the old texts. The same holds good with its synonym vavatthāna.

sammuti: s. sacca.

sampaṭicchana-citta: s. citta-vīthi.

samuṭṭhāna: kamma- (= kamma-ja), utu-, āhāra-s.: these terms are found only in the Com. Citta-samutthāna-rūpa, however, occurs already in Dhs. (ž 586) of the Abh. Canon; and is indicated very often in Patth., e.g. 'taṃ (cittaṃ) samuṭṭhānāna˝ ca rūpānaṃ'. The teaching of the origin of matter is, of course, already implied in the old sutta texts.

santāna, santati: The terms citta-, rūpa-, khandha-, bhavanga-s.:, etc., are found, here and there, in the Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs. ž 634, Kath. 110; s. Guide V), but they are often met with in the Abh. Com. In the Sutta (Therag. 716) is found saṅkhārasantati.

santīraṇa-citta: s. citta-vīthi.

sīla: paccayasannissita-, paccāvekkhana-sīla:, etc., are terms used in the Com. for the proper contemplation (paṭisaṅkhā yoniso) of the 4 requisites of a monk, often dealt with in the old texts (e.g. M. 2). Also the 3 other pārisuddhi-sīla, as pātimokkhasaṃvara-, indriya-, and ājīvapārisuddhi-sīla, though under these names perhaps only known in the Com., are fully dealt with in the old texts, e.g. M.53, D.2, M.2, etc. The terms pannatti- and pa˝˝atti-sīla are used only in the Com.

sukkha-vipassaka = suddha-vipassanā-yānika: these terms are used only in the Com., as also their counterpart samathayānika.

 

tadārammaṇa-citta: s. citta-vīthi.

tathatā: This term, with the meaning in question, occurs perhaps only once in the Canon, namely in Kath. (s. Guide 83). Whether it is found also somewhere in the Com. , I am unable to say.

tatramajjhattatā: occurs probably for the first time in the Abh. Canon (e.g. Patth.; cf. Guide 110).

Theravāda: This term was already used by the Buddha himself in speaking of the doctrine of Ālāra-kālāma (s. M. 26). As a name for the Buddha's doctrine it belongs to the commentarial literature.

 

ujukatā: s. lahutā.

upacaya: is an Abh. term but already alluded to in the old sutta texts, e.g. M. 149: 'āyatiṃ pa˝cūpādānakkhandhā upacayaṃ gacchanti', or in D.2: 'Ayaṃ kāyo ... odana-kummās' upacayo'.

upādā-rūpa: is, as such, an Abh. term, but it is used with the same meaning in the sutta texts, c.g. in M. 9: 'catunna˝ ca mahābhūtānaṃ upādāya rūpaṃ'. Upādā is an abbreviation of upādāya (gerund).

 

vāritta-sīla: s. cāritta.

vasī: The 5 kinds of vasī are probably found first in the Vis.M.

vatthu: as a general term for the 5 sense-organs (cakkhu-vatthu, etc ) is frequent in the Com., and often used together with ārammaṇa (object). This usage, however, is already indicated in the Abh. Canon: 'Cakkhuṃ p'etaṃ... vatthuṃ p'etaṃ' (Dhs. ž 597; Vibh., p.71, PTS): 'cakkhuvi˝˝āṇassa vatthu' (Dhs. žž 679ff.).

vimokkha: The 3, i.e. su˝˝atā-, animitta-, appanihita-: are for the first time described and enumerated in Pts.M. II, 351. As su˝˝atāsamādhi, etc., however, they are already given at D. 33.

vi˝˝atti: kāya- and vacī-v., seem to occur for the first time in Dhs. (žž 665,718) of the Abh. Canon.

vipassanā: is frequently found in the older sutta texts (e.g. A. II, 32; S. XLV, 159), also together with samatha. The 9 and 18 insight-knowledges (vipassanā-˝āṇa and mahā-vipassanā), however, occur in the Sutta Piṭaka only in the Pts.M., Đāṇakathā, where they are enumerated and explained, though without any group name being attached to them.

vipassanūpakkilesa: The group of 10 is mentioned for the first time in Pts.M. II, 102, and it is said that the mind may become defiled thereby (kilissati), but the above term is not used for the 10. This is probably done for the first time in Vis.M. XX.

vivatta: as a name for Nibbāna, seems to be found only in the Com.

vivattanānupassanā: is already mentioned in Pts.M., together with the remaining 17 kinds of vipassanā. In the old texts it is not found.

vohāra-sacca: etc. The terms paramattha-, vohāra-, sammuti-: etc., belong as such to the commentarial literature, but their significance is clearly shown in the old sutta texts, e.g. D. 9: 'loka-sāma˝˝ā, loka-vohāra'; further(D 33): 'sammuti-˝āṇa', etc.

vokāra: pa˝ca-, catu-, and eka-v. (bhava), occur as technical terms only in the Abh. (Vibh., Yam., Patth.) and Com., e.g. Vis.M., but their substance is an integral part of the suttas.

votthapana-citta: s. citta-vīthi.

vutthāna-gāminī-vipassanā: is probably implied in Pts.M. I, 60, under the name of vutthāna-vivattane ˝āṇa.

yamaka-pātihāriya: is perhaps for the first time mentioned and described in Pts.M., as seen in the main part of this work.

yogāvacara, yogi: These 2 terms belong to the commentarial literature, but the first term appears also in Mil.


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