BuddhaSasana Home Page
English Section

The Concept of Personality Revealed Through The Pancanikaya - Ven. Thich Chon-Thien
Institute of Buddhist Studies
Saigon, Vietnam

Part Four: Pancakkhandhā and Individual Problems

IV.2 Chapter 2

The Five Aggregates and Individualized Education


As discussed in (IV. 1.5), training a man for his regard of wisdom requires various spirits of education very human, practical and realistic, although such a theory of personality as usual is not available here.


With regard to individual differences in the spheres of physics, psychology, spirituality, social class and capacity, individualized education is needed in schools of modern time. Lord Buddha was the one who taught people on the basis of spirits of individualized education in response to various temperaments of men: Precepts (or Sėla) applied for lay people are different from those applied for monks and nuns. Speeches used to teach dhamma to worldly persons are different from those used to teach the learned.

In Kindred Sayings, Vol. V, PTS, 1990, pp. 364-365, it is recorded that:

" Monks, the Aryan Truth of "This is Ill" has been pointed out by me. Therein are numberless shades and variations of meaning. Numberless are the way of illustrating this Aryan Truth of "This is Ill".

The Aryan Truth of "This is the arising of Ill" has been pointed out by me...

The Aryan Truth of "This is the ceasing of Ill" has been pointed out by me...

The Aryan Truth of "This is the Practice that leads to the ceasing of Ill" has been pointed out by me...". (1)

("Idam dukkham ariyacaccan ti, bhikkhave, mayā pannattam / tattha aparimānā vannā aparimānā vyanjanā aparimānā samkāsanā itipidam dukkham ariyasaccan ti //

Idam dukkhasamudayam // la /

Idam dukkhanirodham // la //

Idam dukkhanirodhagāminė patipadā ariyasaccanti, bhikkhave, mayā pannattam // tattha aparimānā vannā aparimānā vyanjanā aparimānā samkasanā itipidam dukkhani-rodhagāminė patipadā ariyasaccan ti") (2)

When introducing "passion" to peasants or worldly men, Lord Buddha used simple words spoken by them in daily life. He said:

_" As rain breaks through an ill-thatched house,
Passion will break through an unflecting mind". (3) (Dhp. 13)

*("Yathā agāram ducchannam vutthi samativijjhati
Evam abhāvitam cittam rāgo samativijjhati).(4) (Dhp. 93)

_" As rain does not break through a well- thatched house,
Passion will not break through a well- reflectingmind." (5) (Dhp. 14)

*("Yathā agāram succhannam vutthi na samativijjhati,
Evam subhāvitam cittam rāgo na samativijjhati".) (6)

The picture of an ill-thatched and well-thatched house is very close to the peasants: it will be very easy for them to understand what Lord Buddha means.

For the learned lay people or monks, Lord Buddha used the language spoken by them, such as:

"The eye of a man, brethren, is the ocean. Its impulse is made of objects (or forms). Whoso endureth that object-made impulse, of him, brethren, it is said, "he hath crossed over that ocean of the eye, with its waves and whirlpools, its sharks and demons, the brahmin hath crossed and gone beyond. He standeth on dry ground.

The tongue of a man, brethren, is the ocean... The ear... The nose... The mind... " (7)

("Cakkhu, bhikkhave, purisassa samuddo tassa ruųpamayo vego // yo tam ruųpamayam vegam sahati ayam vuccati, bhikkhave, atari cakkhusamuddasmim sāvattam sagāham sarakkhasam tinno pāragato thale titthati brāhmano // la // Jivhā, bkikkhave, purisassa... // ... // Mano, bhikkhave, purisassa samuddo... //") (8)

Or such as:

" .. Brethren, the all is on fire. What all, brethren, is on fire? The eye, brethren, is on fire, objects areon fire, eye-consciousness is on fire, eye-contact... that also on fire. On fire with what? - On fire with the blaze of lust, the blaze of ill-will, of infatuation, birth, decay, death, sorrow, etc. So I declare? (9)

("Sabbam, bhikkhave, ādittam, // Kinca, bhikkhave sabbam ādittam // Cakkhum, bhikkhave, ādittam // ruųpā ādittā // cakkhu vinnānam ādittam // Cakkhusamphasso āditto // yam pidam cakkhusamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitam sukham vā dukham vā adukkhamasukham vā // tam pi ādittam // Kena ādittam // Rāgagginā dosagginā mohagginā ādittam// Jātiyā jarāya maranena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi ādittanti vadāmi // pe //

Jivhā ādittā //...// rasā... // Jivhāvinnānam... //... Mano āditto dhammā ādittā manovinnānam ādittam...//") (10)

This language sounds very philosophical and thoughtful. It may keep a deep attention of the learned.

All the above examples imply the same doctrine of wisdom, although they are spoken in different languages. This is the meaning of the expression that: "Lord Buddha taught His wonderful Dhamma in different ways to different groups of listeners"

In Khuddakanikāya, the stories about Therā and Therė were recorded that : Lord Buddha did teach them in different ways to destroy their fetters. This says themeaning of individualized education: each person has his own Kamma, and so he needs a separate way to deal with that Kamma. In other words, each individual thinks with his own mind and goes with his own legs.


A system of individualized education demands educational spirits of self-responsibility, self-confidence, self-support, self-control. self-acceptance, self-awareness, etc... Without them, it cannot work.

For self-responsibility, Lord Buddha did ask people not to depend on Him or on any external power. He taught:

" Self is the lord of self, who else could be the lord? With self well subdued, a man finds a lord such as few can find" (11) (Dhp. 160)

("Attā hi attano nātho ko hi nātho paro siyā, Attano'va sudantena nātham labhati dullabham.") (12)


" Make thyself an island, work hard, be wise! When thy impurities are blown away, and thou art free from guilt, thou wilt enter into the heavenly world of the Ariyans" (13) (Dhp. 236)

("So karohi dėpamattano khippam vāyama pandito bhava,Niddhantamalo anangano dibbam ariyabhuųmimehisi") (14)


" All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with an evil thought, pain follows him as the wheel follows the foot of the ox that draws the carriage". (15) (Dhp. 1.)

("Manopubbangamā dhammā manosetthā manamayā, Manasā ce padutthena bhāsati vā karoti vā, Tato nam dukkhamanveti cakkam va vahato padam".) (16) (Dhp. .1)

Dhammapada, Verse No 2, says similarly: if a man acts or speaks with a pure thought, happiness follows him like his shadow that never leaves him.

All the above teachings imply the emphasis on the spirit of self-responsibility. Without it, the law of Kamma does not work, and Buddhism has nothing to do with human beings. Without it, no system of social law could be implemented, and human society immediately falls into disturbances. Without it, no system of education can be formed either. Self-responsibility is therefore one of the root spirits of Buddhist education as well as non - Buddhist education.

It should be noted here that: Lord Buddha taught the truth of selflessness of every existing thing on the one hand, and asked a person to regard things as not "he", not "his" and not "his self" so that he can abandon craving and grasping - the causes of his suffering, on the other hand. He taught the self-spirits of education so that the person himself can develop his capacities for his liberation and happiness. No contradiction exists therein. This is the only way for him to achieve his purpose of life: wisdom and happiness, and to achieve the truth of selflessness: the ultimate Noble Truth, because the other self-perception ways having been tested by human beings just cannot resolve their fateful suffering.

That spirit of self-responsibility therefore helps a person get out of the phenomenon of alienation and really proves that the non-self-perception way of life is extremely close to individuals and human society.


Besides self-responsibility, the practice of wisdom regard asks the practician to have self-confidence being sure that with his own effort he can realize truth and happiness in the here - and - now.

The meaning of taking refuge in oneself, as Lord Buddha taught above, is the meaning of self-confidence.

The fact Lord Buddha declared in the Assembly of Sangha the attainment of Arahantship of those who got it implies the encouragement of self-confidence and the awakening of self-confidence in those who had not attained the highest Sainthood. This will help them improve their self-control shaken by a lack of self-confidence. Lord Buddha said:

" If a man's faith is unsteady, if he does not know the true law, if his peace of mind is troubled, his knowledge will never be perfect." (17)

("Anavattathitacittassa, saddhammam avijānato, Pariplavapasādassa pannā na paripurati." ) (18)

When the Kālāmas wavered among various points of view of non-Buddhist masters, they came to Lord Buddha for advice, Lord Buddha spoke:

" Now look you, Kālāmas. Be ye not misled by report or tradition or hearsay be not misled by proficiency in the collections, nor by mere logic or inference, nor after considering reasons, nor after reflection on and approval of some theory, nor because it fits becoming, nor out of respect for a recluse (who holds it). But, Kālāmas, when you know for yourselves: these things are unprofitable, these things are blameworthy, these things are censured by the intelligent; these things, when performed and undertaken, conduce to loss and sorrow, then indeed do ye reject them, Kālāmas." (19)

("Alam hi vo, Kālāmā, kankhitum alam vicikicchitum. Kankhāniye va pana vo thāne vicikicchā uppannā.

Etha tumhe, Kālāmā, mā anussavena mā paramparāya mā iti kirāya mā pitakasampadānena mā ditthinijjhānakkhantiyā mā bhavyaruųpatāya mā samano no garu ti, yadā tumhe, Kālāmā, attanā va jāneyyātha- ime dhammā akusalā ime dhammā sāvajjā ime dhammā vinnugarahitā ime dhammā samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya samvattantė ti atha tumhe, Kālāma, pajaheyyātha.") (20)

The above teaching is but a guidance suggesting the Kālāmas to turn back to their true experience of life and to be confident in themselves.

Indeed, in daily life, a person can continue surviving without confidence in others, but without self-confidence he cannot survive; otherwise, he exists as a body without soul.

In a religious life, every task done for liberation, the release of suffering, requires the presence of right view, right thought and right effort which never lack of self-confidence. A stream Enterer (sotagami), the first fruit (phala) of Sainthood, is defined as the one who has unshaken confidence in Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha and sėla (precepts), so he must have confidence in himself and his effort.

The fact that Lord Buddha enlightened in this life through His own effort has a meaning of establishing self-confidence for human beings: with his own effort, a human being can attain what Lord Buddha attained under the Bodhi-tree. And, even the Noble Truth of Dependent Origination Lord Buddha realized gives individuals a confidence that a man's suffering and ignorance are conditioned: they are unreal and may be changed if he has right thoughts and actions.

The above statements all imply the meaning of establishing self- confidence.


With self-responsibility and self-confidence, a person starts practising his regard of wisdom to extinguish his troubles. The regard asks him to be aware of existing things around him without attachment to them. So, from his observing and analysing things his awareness isreinforced: this is the existence of self-awareness.

In the course of his practice of the mentioned regard, he will see the impermanence, egolessness and suffering of the five aggregates. This seeing is meant his self-awareness which helps him detach from his desire for impermanent things and his troubles. When this practice is cultivated again and again; his "self-awareness" will be at a level called wisdom (pannā). In other words, in worldly men, self-awareness really is "right view" and "right thought"; in meditations, it is called medetative vision; and in Saints, it is called wisdom or perfect wisdom.

On the basis of awareness, the practician develops his "self-control" of Activities aggregate (meaning controlling his mind, his speech and his body) and his task of the blowing off his impurities as Lord Buddha said:

" The wise who control their body, who control their tongue, the wise who control their mind, are indeed well controlled." (21) (Dhp. 234)

("Kāyena samvutā dhėrā atho vacāya samvutā,
Manasā samvutā dhėrā te ve suparisamvutā") (22)

" The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their mind day and night always delights in compassion." (23) (Dhp. 300)

("Suppabuddham pabujjhanti sadā Gotamasāvakā,
Yesam divā ca ratto ca ahimsāya rato mano.") (24) (Dhp. 300)

" The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their mind day and night always delights in meditation." (25) (Dhp. 301)

("Suppabuddham pabujjhanti sadā Gotamasāvakā,
Yesam divā ca ratto ca bhāvanāya rato mano.") (26)

Self-awareness is the soul of a person's regard of wisdom indeed: it is the start and also the destination of that regard. In other words, self-awareness is the first and last purpose of practising Dhamma.

It is this which is the object of the search for truth of man, but not any nature of personality.


In the case a person's awareness is not strong enough or is absent from his regard to things, especially his regard to the inside parts of his five aggregates, his wrong view and thought, as of his kamma, arise in his mind and lead him to wrong deeds and to troubles. This is the time when he becomes unsatisfied with himself: his body, his descent, knowledge or social position, etc. So, for preventing the arising of wrong thoughts and deeds in that case, the person should learn to accept what he is and what he has. This is the meaning of self-acceptance.

For his body, a person always wishes for a good looking form with beautiful face, complexion, etc. If his body appears not good looking as what he wants, he feels so painful. For his descent, if he was born in a family of low caste, he feels terribly disappointed. For his knowledge and social position, if he does not have high knowledge and high rank to be admired or respected, he may feel so sad... In addition to those things, hornours, praises, advantages,.., may cause him shaking. Therefore, Lord Buddha declared:

"Monks, these eight worldly conditions obsess the world; the world revolves round these eight worldly conditions. What eights?- Gain and loss, fame and obscurity, blame and praise, contentment and pain. Monks, these eight worldly conditions obsess the world, the world revolves round these eight conditions..." (27)

("Atth'ime, bhikkhave, lokadhammā lokam anuparivattanti, loko ca attha lokadhamme anuparivattati Katame attha?

Lābho ca alābho ca yaso ca ayaso ca nindā ca pasamsā ca sukhanca dukkhanca. Ime kho, bhikkhave, attha lokadhammā lokam anuparivattanti, loko ca ime attha lokadhamme anuparivattatė ti.") (28)

The above worldly conditions are impermanent. Even when a person gets "gain, fame, praise and contentment" his fear of change may cause his mind agitated and worried. So, to keep his mind in peace he must know how to accept what he is. Otherwise, the worldly conditions will happen to him as a strong wind blowing and striking at the root of his meditation tree and causing disaster in his mind.

Spirit of Practicalness

A person's trouble may be caused by his wrong thought of things: he thinks of things that should not bethought of, or does not think of things to be thought of as the following teaching mentions:

" The past should not be followed after, the future not desired. What is past is got rid of and the furure has not come. But whoever has vision now here, now there, of a present thing, knowing that it is immovable, unshakable, let him cultivate it. Swelter at the task this very day. Who knows whether he will die tomorrow?

There is no bargaining with the great hosts of Death. Thus abiding ardently, unwearied day and night, He indeed is "Auspicious" called, decribed as a sage at peace." (29)

(" Atėtam nānvāgameyya, nappatikankhe anāgatam Yad atėtam pahėnan tam, appattanca anāgatam. Paccupannan ca yo dhammam, tattha tattha vipassati, Asamhėram asamkuppam,tam vidvā manubruhaye. Ajj'eva kiccam ātappam; ko jannā maranam suve? Na hi no samgaran tena, mahāsenena maccunā. Evam vihārim ātāpim, ahorattam atanditam Tam ve bhaddekaratto ti, santo ācikkhate munėti.") (30)

The discourse on "Bhaddekaratta" explained the meaning implied in the above teaching. With regard to this discourse, a person thinks of his material shape in the past, thinks of his feeling, his perception, his activities, his conciousness in the past, and delights therein: this is the meaning of following after the past that should not be done.

The person thinks of his future and a thought arises in his mind that: "may my body, my feeling, my perception, my activities, my consciousness be thus in the future" and he delights therein: this is the meaning of desiring future that should not be done.

As to the present things, he should regard his body, his feeling, his perception, his activities, his consciousness as not his self, or self not having them, or they are not in the self, or the self not in them: this is the meaning of having vision of persent things he should practise day after day.

So, the above teaching really shows individuals the practical way to live in peace of mind: if a person practises it one day, he will be a sage at peace in one day; if he practises it day after day, he may become a true sage, who completely destroys the cause of all troubles and sufferings, and abides in happiness for good.

In the case of a worldly man who just can practise it partly, he may reduce his immediate troubles to the least, and save a lot of energy for use for his jobs.

In the author's opinion, following after the past or desiring the future is living with the image of reality, but not living in reality; this is an unrealistic and unpractical way of life. Living in the very present moment is living a true life which can help a man see things as they really are: this is a realistic and practical way to live: this also is the meaning of the spirit of practicalness taught by Lord Buddha.

Spirit of middle way:

Another spirit of education taught by Lord Buddha to help individuals avoid two extremes of life for vision, knowledge and calm is the spirit of middle way. In His first discourse of Noble Truths He said:

"Monks, these two extremes should not be followed by one who has gone forth as a wanderer. What two?

Devotion to the pleasures of sense, a low practice of villagers, a practice unworthy, unprofitable, the way of the world (on the one hand), and (on the other) devotion to self - mortification, which is painful, unworthy and unprofitable.

By avoiding these two extremes the Tathāgata has gained knowledge of that middle path which giveth vision, which giveth knowledge, which causeth calm, special knowledge, enlightenment, Nibbāna.

And what, monks, is that middle path which giveth vision,.., Nibbāna?

Verily it is this Aryan eightfold way, to wit; right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right living, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This, monks, is that middle path which giveth vision, which giveth knowledge, which causeth calm, special knowledge, enlightenment, Nibbāna." (31)

("Dve me, bhikkhave, antā pabbajitena na sevittabbā // Katame dve // Yo cāyam kāmesu kāmasukhallikānuyogo hėno gammo puthujjanėko anariyo anatthasamhito // yo cāyam attakilamathānuyogo dukkho anariyo anatthasamhito // Ete te, bhikkhave, ubho ante anupagamma majjhimā patipadā Tathāgatena abhisambuddhā cakkhukaranė nānakaranė upasamāya abhinnaya sambodhāya nibbānāya samvattati //

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, majjhimā patipadā Tathāgatena abhisambuddhā cakkhukāranė... nibbānāya samvattati // Ayam eva ariyo atthangiko maggo // seyyathėdam // sammāditthi... sammāsamādhi // Ayam kho sā, bhikkhave, majjhimā patipadā Tathāgatena abhisambuddhā cakkhukaranė nanakaranė upasamāya abhinnāya sambodhāya nibbānāya samvattati // ") (32)

Even to the practice of "right effort", which is the most important task in completing other tasks, the practician should do in time and in the spirit of middle-way. Otherwise, the practice will become unworthy and unprofitable, as Lord Buddha showed:

" At such time, monks, as the mind is sluggish, then is the season for cultivating the limb of wisdom that is norm - investigation,.. energy,.. zest. Why so? Because, monks, the sluggish mind is easily raised up by such conditions."

" At such time, monks, as the mind is elated, then is the wrong season for cultivating the limb of wisdom, that is norm - investigation,.. energy,.. zest. Why so? Because, monks, the elated mind is hard to be calmed by such conditions." (33)

("Yasmim ca kho, bhikkhave, samaye lėnam cittam hoti // kālo tasmim samaye dhammavicayasamhojjhangassa bhāvanāya kālo viriyasambojjhangassa bhāvanāya kālo pėtisambojjhangassa bhāvanāya // Tam kissa hetu // lėnam, bhikkhave, cittam tam etehi dhammehi susamutthāpayam hoti // ...

Yasmim, bhikkhave, samaye uddhatam cittam hoti // akālo tasmim samaye dhammavicayasambojjhangassa bhāvanāya // akālo viriya... // akālo pėti... //

Tam kissa hetu // uddhatam bhikkhave cittam tam etehi dhammehi duvupasamayam hoti //") (34)

The above teaching is excellent advice by Lord Buddha for individuals practising Dhamma. It always requires wisdom (or right view and right thought) to follow a person's mind to know where it is to choose which path is appropriate for the immediate practice - knowing where one's mind also means self - understanding.

Spirit of analysis:

The middle way of practice is also lighted up by other interesting spirits such as analysis, criticism and creativeness.

It must be said that Lord Buddha's method of teaching Dhamma is analysis based on reality. This method is far different from those which are based on pure reasons of soul - theories. The Four Noble Truths preached for the first time at Deer Park, Benares, started from reality: "life is suffering", then analysed in fouraspects: suffering which is birth, old-age, sickness, death, separating from what one likes, being with what one dislikes not getting what one wants, in short, five aggregates are suffering; the cause of suffering which is craving or the arising of Dependent Origination; the cessation of suffering which is Nibbaāna; and the way to the cessation of suffering which is the Eightfold Noble Path.

The doctrine of Dependent Origination, the truth of this world, and the five aggregates making up what is called a man were analysed thoroughly by Lord Buddha.

Analysing the understanding an existing thing, Lord Buddha showed that: a man should know its existence, the cause of its existence, its ceasing, and the way to its ceasing (in many discourses).

For the dhammas which can only be seen directly by perfect wisdom, Lord Buddha advised individuals not to think of them, such as:

" Monks, there are these four unthinkables, not to be thought of, thinking of which one would be distraught and come to grief. What are the four?

Of Buddhas, monks, the range is unthinkable; world - speculation (Lokā - cintā)..." (35)

("Cattār'imāni, bhikkhave, acinteyyāni na cintetabbāni yāni cintento ummādassa vighātassa bhāgė assa. Katamāni cattāri?

Buddhānam, bhikkhave, buddhavisayo acinteyyo na cintetabbo yam cintento ummādassa vighātassabhāgė assa; jhāyissa, bhikkhave, jhānavisayo..., kammavipāko..., lokacintā...") (36)

For states of mind, such as lust (lobha), malice (dosa) and illusion (moha), He analysed and showed that one can understand them by seeing them with the eye of wisdom, but not with belief, argument or reflection on reasons... He taught:

"Herein, brethren, a brother beholding an object with the eye, either recognizes within him the existence of lust, malice and illusion, thus: "I have lust, malice and illusion, or recognizes the non-existence of these qualities within him, thus: "I have not lust, malice and illusion". Now as to that recognition of their existence and non - existence within him, are these conditions, I ask, to be understood by belief, or inclination, or hearsay, or argument as to method, or reflection on reasons, or delight in speculation?

- "Surely not, Lord".

Are these states to be understood by seeing them with the eye of wisdom?

-." Surely, Lord". (37)

("Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cakkhunā ruųpam disvā santam vā ajjhattam rāgadosamoham Atthi me ajjhattam rāgadosamohoti pajānāti //asantam vā ajjhattam rāgadosamoham Natthi me ajjhattam rāgadosamohoti pajānāti // yantam, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cakkhunā ruųpam disvā santam vā ajjhattam rāgadosamoham Atthi me... Natthi me... // api nu me, bhikkhave, dhammā saddhāya vā veditabbā ruciyā vā veditabbā anussavena vā veditabbā ākāra - parivitakkena vā veditabbā ditthinijjhā nakhantiyā vā veditabbā ti // No hetam bhante //

Nanu me, bhikkhave, dhammā pannāya disvā veditabbā ti //Evam bhante //") (38)

It is similar for hearing a sound with the ear, smelling a scent with the nose, tasting a savour with the tongue, contacting a tangible with the body, and cognizing a mental state with the mind.

In Gradual Sayings (Vol I, PTS, 1989, pp. 178-179), Lord Buddha analysed the conditions expressed by the one who is competent or incompetent to discuss, and advised His disciples to follow the following basic points:

- If a person is asked a question, and he can give a categorical reply to the question requiring it, a discriminating reply to the question requiring it, a counter - reply to the question requiring it, or he does not waive a question which should be waived, such a person is really competent to discuss. And inversely.

- If a person is asked a question, and he does not abide by conclusions, whether right or wrong, he does not abide by an assumption, does not abide by recognized arguments, does not abide by usual procedure, such a person really is incompetent to discuss. And inversely.

- If a person is asked a question, then he evades the question by another, or he turns it off the point, or he displays his vexation, malice or sulkiness, such a person is actually incompetent to discuss. And inversely.

- If a person is asked a question, then instead of giving reply he loads with abuse and beats down the questioner, laughs him to scorn and catches him up when he falters, such a person is actually incompetent to discuss.

- If he does not do anything of the above, he really is competent to discuss.

The above are typical cases of analysis among so many cases taught by Lord Buddha. All of them will bring men insight into things, but not knowledge coming from the experience of sense organs.

Spirit of criticism:

Together with the method of analysis, Lord Buddha taught a spirit of criticism. This spirit estimates the object analysed whether it is right or wrong, wholesome or unwholesome, acceptable or unacceptable, suitable to Dhamma or not; etc. after process of analysis.

In the teaching for the Kālamas mentioned before, it runs that, "... Be ye not misled by report..." the Tathāgata asked His disciples to criticize things on the basis of their observation, analysis and wisdom. He asked them, in "the discourse on Inquiring" (vėmamsakasuttam) (Middle Length Saying, Vol, No 47) to observe and check Him whether He is a Fully self - awakened One or not. He said:

"Monks, an inquiring monk, learning the range of another's mind, should make a study of the Tathāgata so as to distinguish whether He is an Enlightened One or not. ..

Monks, should study the Tathāgata in regard to two things: things cognisable through the eye and through the ear, thinking: "Do those impure states cognisable through the eye and ear exist in the Tathāgata or not?..."

Monks, Tathāgata should Himself be further questioned hereon: "Do these impure states cognisable through the eye and ear exist in the Tathāgata or not?..."

Monks, if anyone in whom faith in the Teacher is established, rooted, supported by these methods, by these words, that faith is called reasoned, based on vision, strong... Thus, monks, does there come to be study of the Tathagata's dhamma, and thus does the Tathāgata come to be well studied in the proper manner." (39)

("Vėmamsakena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā parassa cetoopariyāyam ājānantena dvėsu dhammesu Tathāgato samannesitabbo, cakkhusotavinneyyesu: ye sankilittha cakkhusotavinneyyā dhammā samvijjanti vā te Tathāgatassa no va ti...

Tatra, bhikkhave, Tathāgato va uttarim patipucchitabbo: Ye sankilitthā cakkhusotavinneyyā dhammā samvijjanti vā te Tathāgatassa no va ti...

Evam kho, bhikkhave, Tathāgate dhammasamannesanā hoti, Evanca pana Tathāgato dhammatā susamannittho hotė ti.") (40)

The above quotation proves Lord Buddha, on His way of educating men, concerned much about the spirit of criticism. This spirit will help His disciples improve their "self - awareness", "self - understanding", "self- confidence", their capacity of analysis, and their vision. This sounds very wise and human.

Spirit of creativeness:

Being with the wisdom regard, self - awareness, spirit of criticism,.., creativeness is another distinguished spirit of Buddhist education.

The wisdom regard to things existing in "self - awareness" always sees things as they really are in the very present moment. These things are flowing on and on without any pause: this means they always are new at each moment: the subject of the regard is new, and its object is also new. This is the condition of the seeing of creativeness.

Charles E. Skinner in his book titled "Educational Psychology'' wrote:

" Creative thinking means that the predictions and/or inferences for the individual are new, original, ingenious, unusual. The creative thinker is one who explores new areas and makes new observations, new predictions, new inferences") (41).

With regard to this definition of creative thinking, or creative thinker, the Buddhist way of life led by the wisdom regard ; or by right view and right thought; really is a way of life of creativeness.

It may be said without doubt that the individual's characteristics of self-confidence, self-awareness, self-support, self-responsibility, criticism, analysis, actually are those of a creative thinker. When a person's task of cultivating his regard to things is done, the five hindrances (panca niėvaranāni) and the ten fetters (dasa kilesā) hindering his mind from the truth of things are gradually destroyed, and his mind becomes free: this free mental state really is a state of creativeness. When his mind abides in the third and fourth meditation, his regard can see in the depth of the existence of things and discover new areas of them: this is a regard of creativeness.

Such is the spirit of creativeness of the way of life taught by Lord Buddha.

Spirit of meditation:

The wisdom regard mentioned will be reinforced and the source of creativeness of mind will be awakened by the practice of meditation which is the main task of the Buddhist Way (Magga) to liberation.

Meditation is understood as calming individual's desire and immediate troubles. It transforms the five hindrances (restlessness, torpor and sloth, sensuous desire, ill-will, sceptical doubt) into the five meditative mental factors (thought-conception, discursive thinking, rapture; joy, equanimity- happiness-one pointedness in the "first meditation; rapture; joy, equanimity-happiness- onepointedness in the "second meditation"; joy, equanimity-happiness-onepointedness in the "third meditation"; equanimity - happiness - one pointednessin the "fourth meditation"). And all evil thoughts arising from the five hindrances also are calmed or destroyed.

In the "fourth meditation", the wisdom regard or vipassana is developed fast and comfortably.

So, meditation responds to the following purposes of life:

- Calming immediate troubles of a person practising it.

- Opening a source of creativeness which is a very important factor contributing to the construction of human culture and civilization.

- Developing the wisdom regard for ceasing the cause of suffering.

- Seeing the truth of the existence of men and things.

This is why Lord Buddha taught His disciples that:

" The Bhikkhu whose body and tongue and mind are quieted, who is collected, and has rejected the baits of the world, he is called quiet." (42) (Dhp. 378)

("Santakāyo santavāco santavā susamāhito,
Vantalokāmiso bhikkhu upasanto'ti vuccati"). (43)


" The bhikkhu, full of delight, who is happy in the doctrine of Buddha will reach the quiet place (Nibbāna), happiness consisting the cessation of natural inclinations.) (44) (Dhp. 381)

("Pāmojjabahulo bhikkhuâ pasanno buddha- sāsane, Adhigacche padam santam sankhāruųpa samam sukham. " (45) (Dhp. 381)

So, during the period of time of practising meditation for wisdom regard, an individual lives in the fresh air of mind with happy feelings and gets rid of all troubles, worries withering the flowers of young generations

In addition to the above things, the practice of following breathing in - and breathing out may help worldly men improve their capacity of memory and observation which is very interesting to students in schools; the practice of following and observing their mind will help them see their mental problems as the result of a task of self - therapy.

In short, the way of Buddhist meditation, including Calm (samatha) and Insight (vipassanā) is the way of seeing, developing and cultivating one's mind. Without it, a person cannot understand what he really is, and cannot resolve his psychological problems for peace and happiness in the here - and - now, as Lord Buddha affirmed:

" There is, monks, this only way to the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and distress, for the disappearance of pain and sadness, for the gaining of the right path, for the realization of Nibbāna: that is to say the four foundations of mindfulness." (46)

("Ekāyāno ayam, bhikkhave, maggo sattānam visudhiyā sokapatiddavānam samatikkamāya dukkhadomassānam atthagamāya nāyassaadhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya cattāro satipatthanā.") (47)

But being with the practice of it - meaning the practice of Four Foundations of Mindfulness, cattāro satipatthāna - is the real meaning of a significant life to live: it is the way of return to oneself for taking refuge in oneself but not in any other man or superpower; it is the way to be an island for oneself. During His last days before parinibbāna, Lord Buddha solicitously taught Ānanda, his closest disciple, that:

"Therefore, Ānanda, you should live as islands unto yourselves, being your own refuge, with no one else as your refuge, with the Dhamma as an island, with the Dhamma as your refuge, with no other refuge? Here, Ānanda, a monk abides contemplating the body as body, earnestly, clearly aware, mindful and having put away all hankering and fretting for the world, and likewise with regard to feelings, mind and mind - objects. That, Ānanda, is how a monk lives as an island unto himself,.. with no other refuge. And those who now in my time or afterwards live thus, they will become the hightest, if they are desirous of learning." (48)

("Idh' Ānanda, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassė viharati ātāpė sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhā- domanassam, vedanāsu... pe... citte... pe..., dhammesu dhammānupassė viharati ātāpė sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhjja- domanassam, evam kho, Ānanda, bhikkhuattadėpo viharati attasarano ananna -sarano, dhammadėpo dhammasarano anannasarano.") (49)

This is the only way for everybody: When this way is put into practice, many different results will come to different practicians because of their different temperaments, capacities, volitions, efforts, determinations, etc., called their old and new Kammas. So, Kamma is another subject to be examined for understanding a man's activities.


Verse No. 1 and verse No. 2 of Dhammapada as quoted in the part of "Spirit of Self- responsibility" of this work, imply the meaning of Kamma which says:

* Man's thought put on an action of body, speech or mind is the root cause of his deed defining his deed is either good or evil. The result of it will be happy or painful accordingly.

* Man's kamma is called evil, if it is caused by craving, ill - will or illusion.

* Man's kamma is called good, if it is caused by desirelessness, compassion or wisdom.

* Unwholesome deed will actually lead the doer to woe - states of existence.

* Wholesome deed will lead the doer to happy states of existence.

* Between the cause of a deed and its result exists a short or long period of time, according to the kind of kamma.

* No external power gives reward or punishment to a man's deed.

* The doer of deeds also is the receiver of their results as Lord Buddha declared:

" I am the result of my own deeds; heir to deeds; deeds are matrix; deeds are kin; deeds are foundation; whaterver deed I do, whether good or bad, I shall become heir to it - this ought to be often contemplated by woman and man, by house dweller and by one gone forth." (50)

("Kammassako'mhi kammadāyādo kammayoni kammabandhu kammapatisarano, yam kammam karissāmi kalyānam vā pāpakam vā, tassa dāyādo bhavissāmiti abhinham paccavekkhitabbam itthiyā vā purisena vā gahatthena vā pabbajitena vā. Kathan ca, bhikkhave, atthavasam paticca - jarādhammo'mhi jaram anatėto ti abhinham paccavekkhitabbam itthiyā vā purisena vā gahatthena vā pabbajitena vā.") (51)

Some non-Buddhists claim that according to the Buddhist doctrine of Kamma this life is nothing but the result of kamma having been done in previous lives: it is predetermined or predestinate. But, in reality, it does not appear as simple as such. There are two kinds of kamma which are called old kamma and new kamma as the following teaching mentions:

" And what, brethren, is action that is old? - The eye, brethren, is to be viewed as action that is old, brought about and itentionally done, as a base for felling. And so with the tongue and mind. This, brethren, is called "action that is old"

And what is action that is new?

The action one performs now, brethren, by body, speech and mind, that is called "action that is new" And what, brethren, is the ceasing of action? That ceasing of action by body, speech and mind, by which one contacts freedom, that is called "the ceasing of action".

And what, brethren, is the way leading to the ceasing of action?

It is this Aryan Eightfold Path, to wit: right view,.., right concentration." (52)

("Katamam, bhikkhave, purānakammam // cakkhum, bhikkhave, purānakammam abhisankhatam abhisancetayitam vedaniyam datthabbam // pe // Jivhā... // la // Mano... // Idam vuccati, bhikkhave, purānakammam //

Katamanca, bhikkhave, navakammam // yam kho, bhikkhave, etarahi kammam karoti kāyena vācāya manasā idam vuccati, bhikkhave, navakammam//

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, kammanirodho // yo kho,bhikkhave, āyakammavacėkammamanoka-mmassa nirodhā vimuttim phusati // ayam vuccati, bhikkhave, kammanirodho //

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, kammanirodhagāminė patipadā//Ayam eva ariyo atthangiko maggo .// Ayam vuccati, bhikkhave, kammanirodhagāminė patipadā // "). (53)

As the definition of old and new kamma quoted above, old kamma is what has made up this body of the five aggregates with its relation to the surroundings, such as: family, social class, country, etc., being born as a male, or female with good looking or bad looking body, with nice complexion or not, with graceful or ungraceful face, with a high I.Q. quotient or a low I.Q. quotient, receiving good education or not, etc. These things are out of a person's mind.

The new Kamma is defined as what a man has done, is doing and will do in this life through his body, speech and mind. The intention, effort, desire, will to live, determination, etc., of a person are mental agents of his new Kamma. These things can cause him suffering or happy according to his regard to things.

So, all causes of the circle of birth - and - death created in the past or in the present are what a man is facing in the here - and - now: they all exist only in the sphere of the five aggregates. This is the reason why Lord Buddha's disciples can attain Arahatship by destroying all defilements arising from aggregates only. And this is the meaning of considering the five aggregates as an immense ocean of suffering to be acrossed.

The gravest result the old kamma has left for a human being in this life is his habit of thirsting for things, and of thinking of things as having a permanent self (or soul) which has created the current human culture full of troubles. If a person brings up his self - thought and desire, he will strengthen his old Kamma and go further in suffering. If he stops them, he will come to cease his old and new Kamma for freedom and happiness. In fact, he appears completely free in the very present moment to make any choice he wants between what he should do and what he should not. It is the present moment which is when he copes with his desire arising from his thought caused by the attraction of things. This desire invades his mind. He should know the way to fight against it as it is taught by the following teaching:

" ... Anyone, monks, knowing and seeing eye as it really is (ear, nose, tongue, body, mind)... while he, observing the peril, is not attached, bound or infactuated, the five groups of grasping go on to future diminution... He experiences happiness of body and happiness of mind." (54)

("Cakkhunca kho, bhikkhave, jānam passam yathābhuøtam, ruųpe jānam passam yathābhuøtam, cakkhuvinnānam jānam passam yathābhuøtam,.. Tassa asārattassa asamyuttassa asammuølhassa ādėnavānupassino viharato āyatim pancupādānakkhandhā apacayam gacchanti... So kāyasukham pi cetosukham pi patisam vedeti.") (55)

Here, the author recognizes that Lord Buddha's teaching on the doctrine of Kamma really emphasizes an individual's new Kamma, or mental, oral, bodily actions, leading to ceasing Kamma itself. His teaching is centered on seeing the truth of dependent origination of the five aggregates and detaching from them for true happiness, but not on the search for personality as an entity.

In daily life, people tend to assimilate themselves with conditioned aggregates, therefore they fall into suffering caused by change. If they see their wrong view they will come to the cultivation of the aggregates for the release of their suffering


As discussed before, Kamma is volitional action. Volitional action is activities aggregate. The operation of activities aggregate is that of the five aggregates. So Kamma actually is the operation of those aggregates.

The Buddhist Way (magga) releasing the bondage of Kamma means releasing the bondage of the five aggregates. This suggests that the cultivation of aggregates is the task for liberation which has two things to do:

- Controlling a person's habits of things as having a permanent self from which desire for things arises.

- Developping his regard to things as non - self from which desireless thought arises.

This task is therefore for the cessation of his troubles and sufferings which is the cherished dream of a man, and is the root purpose the branch of modern educational psychology aims at. All teachings of Lord Buddha recorded in Pāli Suttapitaka are centered on this great point.

Once, Sāriputta Mahāthera, the Chief disciple of Lord Buddha Gotama, explained:

"And what, your reverences, is right view? Whatever, your reverences, is knowledge of anguish, knowledge of the arising of anguish, knowledge of the stopping of anguish, knowledge of the course leading to the stopping of anguish: this, your reverences, is called right view.

And what reverences, is called right aspiration (or right thought)? Aspiration for renunciation, a spiration for non - malevolence, aspiration for harmlessness: this, your reverences, is called right aspiration." (56)

("Katamā c'āvuso, sammāditthi? - Yam kho, āvuso, dukkhe nānam dukkhasamudaye nānam dukkhanirodhe nānam dukkhanirodhāgāminiyā patipadāya nānam : ayam vuccat'āvuso, sammāditthi.

Katamo c'āvuso , sammāsamkappo? -Nekkhammasamkappo abyāpādasamkappo avihimsā - samkappo: ayam vuccat'āvuso, sammāsamkappo.") (57)

The meaning of "right view" declared in the above quotation implies the meaning of right view used for counselors and psychotherapists in mordern schools whose role is helping a client understand his troubles, the cause of his troubles, the cessation of his troubles and the way to the cessation of them.

The meaning of "right aspiration", or thought forrenunciation, thought for non-malevolence, and thought for harmlessness, is the motive force in a person's deeds leading to peace of mind. This will open an operation of the five aggregates to mental peace.

Sāriputta Mahāthero continues explaining:

" And what, your reverences, is right speech?

Refraining from lying speech, refraining from slanderous speech, refraining from harsh speech, refraining from gossip, this, your reverences, is called right speech.

And what, your reverences, is right action? Refraining from onslaught on creatures, refraining from taking what has not been given, refraining from going wrongly among the sense pleasures, this, your reverences, is called right action.

And what, your reverences, is right mode of livelihood? As to this, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans, getting rid of a wrong mode of livelihood. This, your reverences, is called right mode of livelihood". (58)

("Katamā c'āvuso, sammāvācā? Musāvādā veramanė, pisunāya vācāya veramanė, pharusāya vācāya veramanė, samphappalāpā veramanė: ayam vuccat' āvuso, sammāvācā. Katamo c'āvuso sammākammanto? - Pānātipātā veramanė, adinnādānā veramanė, kāmesu micchācārā veramanė: ayam vuccat' āvuso, sammākammanto.

Katamo c'āvuso, sammā - ājiėvo? - Idh'āvuso, ariyasāvako micchā- ājėvam pahāya sammā - ājėvena jėvikam kappeti: ayam vuccat'āvuso, sammā - ājėvo".) (59)

The above actions called good deeds will help a person control a lot of troubles arising from his mind. Inversely, if a person does evil deeds he will receive bad results in this life and in the next existence which are suffering. On the basis of doing good deeds he practises meditation and easily attains concentration by his right effort:

" And what, your reverences, is right endeavour? As to this, your reverences, a monk generates desire, endeavours, stirs up energy, exerts his mind and strives for the non - arising of evil unskilled states that have not arisen... for the getting rid of evil unskilled states that have arisen... for the arising of skilled states that have not arisen.. for the maintenance, preservation, increase, maturity, development and completion of skilled states that have arisen. This, your reverences, is called right endeavour". (60)

("Katamo c'āvuso, sammāvāyāmo? Idh'āvuso, bhikkhu, anuppannānam pāpakānam akusalānam dhammānam anuppādāya chandam janeti vāyamati viriyam ārabhati cittam pagganhāti padahati; uppannānam pāpakānam akusalānam dhammānam pahānāya chandam janeti... padahati; anuppannānam kusalānam dhammānam uppādāya chandam janeti... padahati; uppannānam kusalānam dhammānam thitiyā asammohāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya paripuriyā chandam janeti... padahati; ayam vuccat'āvuso, sammāvāyāmo".) (61)

Right endeavour, according to the above teaching, is a mental force to stop the cause of mental troubles, and to make arisen skilled thoughts. Without it, the task of meditation is difficult to be done, and the Way (Magga) is hard to be performed. Concentration is therefore necessary to be supported by "right effort" and the later is listed in the group of samādhi: right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.

With right effort, the practician comes to practise right mindfulness, or the Foundations of mindfulness dissussed in (IV.2.1: Spirit of meditation), for bare attention, keen observation, calm and awareness. In concentrations, he can wipe out his evil thoughts. In the fourth meditation, sensual desires are ejected, and Insight (vipassana) is developed: he can know and see things as they really are, abide in a free state of mind and a feeling of happiness. Here, if Insight is well-developed, his regard of wisdom to aggregates may completely destroy his defilements for perfected Wisdom or Enlightenment.

In short, the above factors of the task of cultivation relate closely to each other, in which "right view" is the most important factor being considered as the starting point and destination of the practising the Way. With ragard to their relationship, Lord Buddha taught:

" As to this, monks, right view comes first. And how, monks, does right view come first? ... Right thought, monks, proceeds from right view; right speech proceeds from right thought, ... ; right concentration proceeds from right mindfulness; right knowledge proceeds from right concentration; right freedom proceeds from right knowledge. In this way, monks, the learner's course is possessed of eight components, the perfected one's, of ten components". (62)

("Tatra, bhikkhave, sammāditthi pubbangamā hoti. Kathan ca, bhikkhave, sammāditthi pubbangamā hoti? Sammāditthassa, bhikkhave, sammāsamkappo pahoti; sammāsamkappassa sammāvācā pahoti; ... sammāsamādhissa sammānānam pahoti; sammānānassa sammāvimutti pahoti. Iti kho, bhikkhave, atthan- gasamannāgato sekho patipado dasangasamannāgato arahā hoti". (63)

In short form, the above Eightfold Path may be expressed in three groups: Morals or Sėla (right speech, right action and right livelyhood), Meditation (right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration or Samādhi), and Wisdom or Pannā (right view and right thought) which are three basic steps of cultivation of one's mind. These steps are so important that Lord Buddha repeated them several times during His last days inlife:

" This is morality, this is concentration, this is wisdom. Concentration, when imbued withmorality, brings great fruit and profit. Wisdom, when imbued with concentration, brings great fruit and profit. The mind imbued with wisdom becomes completely free from the corruptions, that is from the corruption of sensuality, of becoming, of false views and of ignorance". (64)

("Iti sėlam iti samādhi iti pannā, sėlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisamso, samādhi -paribhāvitā pannā mahapphalā hoti mahānisamsā, panna - paribhāvitam cittam sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati seyyathėdam kāmāsavā bhavāsavā ditthāsavā avijjāsavā ti".) (65)

In principle, all teachings of Lord Buddha recorded in Pancanikaāya are aimed at releasing human beings' troubles in this life. They have a function of helping an individual see the way to make arise the skilful thought, to release the opposite evil thought controlling his mind: for example, the five meditative mental factors releasing the five hindrances; compassion or mettā (or adosa) releasing ill - will (dosa); detachment or greedilessness (alobha) releasing greediness (lobha); wisdom or non- illusion (amoha) releasing illusion (moha); perception of selflessness, impermanence and suffering releasing conceit "I am" etc.. This task called the cultivation of the five aggregates or mind - development is done by the individual himself and by his effort itself in the present. The individual really is mentally free performing the task in the here - and - now. He just starts from his present conditions of life which depend on his body, health, knowledge, emotion, social position, etc., especially from his thirst for things: On the one hand, he continues going on his present way of life, on the other hand, should be aware of the dangers of his desire for things caused by impermanence, and should observe and analyse with his wisdom what is going on with his thoughts and feelings. In doing this, his thought of detachment from things observed will arise in his mind and bring him liberation of mind and of wisdom.

For a laywoman or a layman who has duties to do in daily life for herself // himself, for her // his family, company or religion, and country, Lord Buddha practically introduced many steps of the way of cultivation. The first and basic step for her // him is, according to the discourse on Sigālaka (Dėghanikāya, Sutta No 31), to abandon four wrong deeds: not taking life, not taking what is not given, not doing sexual misconduct, and not lying speech; not doing what is caused by attachment, ill - will, folly or fear; not to waste his substance either by the six ways which are strong drink, haunting the streets at unfitting times, attending affairs, gambling, keeping bad company, and habitual idleness.

In addition to the above things, a laity should live in the six good relationships of his family and society: between parents and children, between husband and wife, between teacher and student, among relatives and neighbours, between monk and laity, and between employer and employee. These relationships are based on human love, loyalty, sincerity, gratitude, mutualacceptance, mutual understanding and mutual respect which relate closely to individuals' happiness in the present.

On the basis of the task suggested above, a laity can improve his mind -develpoment by practising the Four Foundations of Mindfulness or practising just mindfulness of body together with compassion as showed in the discourse of Compassion or Loving - Kindness (Mettāsutta) in Suttanipāta of the Khuddakanikāya, generally as follows:

* Practising mindfulness of compassion when he is lying, standing, sitting or walking.

* Wishing all beings joy and happiness to make arise thought of loving - kindness in his mind.

* Wishing all beings not wishing each other ill or harm.

* Concerning about other's pain and protecting them from suffering as a mother's doing for her only child.

All the tasks mentioned above are very helpful for the development of the wholeness of man, and may have good contributions to the formation of a new course of human culture and education. On the side of a practician, he is strongly influenced by the qualities of the culture and education of the society he is living in. This is to be discussed more.

Education for the cultivation of the five aggregates:

What a child is after his mother gave a birth to him is the result of his old kamma, according to the teaching of Lord Buddha on "new and old Kamma" discussed before. What of education he has received from his family and society will put strong influences on his way of thought, attitude of life, desire, aspiration and deeds which are of what is called new Kamma. It may be said that what a person does or will do by mind, speech or body is what culture and education of his society suggest him to. In this life, he appears as an "educational being" rather than "a reasonable animal" defined in the old days. On the other side, it is self - thought of individuals which has shaped the course of education and culture of a society. This interrelationship says something different to the development of the five aggregates leading to happiness which requires a non - self way of thought and desire. To help individuals cultivate their mind on this way of life, all means of communication in the present society - such as books, magazines, newspapers, radio - broadcast, movies, etc.; - Which strengthen self - thought and sensual and sexual desire need to be adjusted or reduced to a considerable level; all means of communication awakening non - self thought and desire need to be maintained and developed. This requires education to do the same thing: there is no need to build up any theory of personality as a self, but new critical studies are needed, which are:

* Critical studies on physical body and health for a knowledge of troubles arising from it.

* Critical studies on sensuality and sexuality for aknowledge of dealing with them for a physiopsychological balance and peace of mind.

* Critical studies on perception, thought, knowledge for a realization the true value of all values in life.

* Critical studies on behaviours, psychology, psychiatry getting along the way of development of the five aggregates.

* Critical studies on sociology, ecology, anthropology, sciences, literature and education for a knowledge of conditions of life for happiness of man.

All those studies aim at the same purpose that is building up a good society for man to live in happiness, and therefore building up a new culture.


(1) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. V, PTS London, 1990, pp.364-365.
(2) : Samyutta Nikāya, Vol. V, PTS, London, p. 430.
(3) : Dhammapada, tr.by F.Max Muller,..,verse 13
(4) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari, 1st Edition, 1977, Department of Buddhist Studies, Delhi University, verse 13.
(5) : Dhammapada, tr.by F.Max Muller,..,verse 14.
(6) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari,..., verse 14.
(7) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. IV, PTS, London, 1980, pp 97-98.
(8) : Samyutta-Nikāya, Vol. IV,... PTS, London, 1990, p. 156.
(9) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. IV,..., p. 10.
(10) : Samyutta-Nikāya, Vol. IV,..., p. 19-20.
(11) : Dhammapada, tr.by F.Max Muller,.,verse 190.
(12) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari,..., verse 190.
(13) : Dhammapada, tr. by F.Max Muller,.,verse 236.
(14) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari,..., verse 236.
(15) : Dhammapada, tr. by F.Max Muller,..,verse 1.
(16) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari,..., verse 1.
(17) : Dhammapada, tr.by F.Max Muller,..,verse 38.
(18) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari,..., verse 38
(19) : Gradual Sayings, Vol. I, PTS, London, 1989, pp. 171-172.
(20) : Anguttara-Nikāya, Vol. I, PTS, London, 1961, p. 189.
(21) : Dhammapada, tr. by F.Max Muller,..,verse 234.
(22) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari,..., verse 234.
(23) : Dhammapada, tr. by F.Max Muller,..,verse 300.
(24) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari,..., verse 300.
(25) : Dhammapada, tr. by F.Max Muller,..,verse 301.
(26) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari,..., verse 301.
(27) : Gradual Sayings, Vol. IV, PTS, London, 1989, p. 107.
(28) : Anguttara-Nikāya, Vol. IV, PTS, London, 1960, pp. 156-157.
(29) : Middle Length,Vol. III, PTS, London, p.1990, pp. 233.
(30) : Majjhima-Nikāya, Vol. III, PTS, London, 1977, p. 193.
(31) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. V, PTS, London, 1990, pp. 356-357.
(32) : Samyutta-Nikāya, Vol. V, PTS, London, 1976, p. 421.
(33) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. V,..., p. 96.
(34) : Samyutta-Nikāya, Vol. V, PTS, pp. 113-114.
(35) : Gradual Sayings, Vol. II, PTS, London, 1992, p. 89-90
(36) : Anguttara-Nikāya, Vol. II, PTS, London, 1955, p. 80.
(37) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. IV, PTS, London, 1980, pp. 88-89
(38) : Samyutta-Nikāya, Vol. IV, PTS, London, 1990, p. 139.
(39) : Middle Length Sayings, Vol. I, PTS, London, pp. 381-382.
(40) : Majjhima-Nikāya, Vol. I, PTS, London, pp. 318-320.
(41) : Charles E. Skinner, "Educational Psychology", Ninth Printing in India, 1992, p. 529.
(42) : Dhammapada, tr. by F.Max Muller,..,verse 378.
(43) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari,..., verse 378.
(44) : Dhammapada, tr. by F.Max Muller,..,verse 381.
(45) : Dhammapada, Devanāgari,..., verse 381.
(46) : Long Discourses, tr. by Maurice Walshe,..., 1987, p. 335.
(47) : "Mahā-Satipatthāra Suttanta", Dėgha-Nikāya, Vol. II, 1982, p. 290.
(48) : Long Discourses, tr.by Maurice Walshe,.., p. 245.
(49) : Dėgha Nikāya, Vol. II,..., p. 100.
(50) : Gradual Sayings, Vol. III, PTS, London, 1988, p. 59.
(51) : Anguttara-Nikāya, Vol. III, PTS, London, 1958, p. 72.
(52) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. IV,..., 1980, p. 85.
(53) : Samyutta-Nikāya, Vol. IV,.., 1990, pp. 182-183.
(54) : Middle Length Sayings, Vol. III,..., pp. 357.
(55) : Majjhima-Nikāya, Vol. III,..., pp. 288-289.
(56) : Middle Length Sayings, Vol. III,..., pp. 298.
(57) : Majjhima-Nikāya, Vol. III,..., p. 251.
(58) : Middle Length Sayings, Vol. III,..., pp. 298.
(59) : Majjhima-Nikāya, Vol. III,..., p. 251.
(60) : Middle Length Sayings, Vol. III,.., pp. 298-299.
(61) : Majjhima-Nikāya, Vol. III,..., p. 251-252.
(62) : Middle Length Sayings, Vol. III,..., pp. 119.
(63) : Majjhima-Nikāya, Vol. III,..., pp. 75-76.
(64) : Long Discourses, tr. by Maurice Walshe,..., 1987, p. 234.
(65) : Dėgha-Nikāya, Vol. II,..., 1982, p. 98.

Part 1.1 | Part 1.2 | Part 2.1 | Part 2.2 | Part 3.1 | Part 3.2 |
Part 4.1 | Part 4.2 | Part 5.1 | Part 5.2 | Biography | Contents
Top of Page

[Back to English Index]