This document is written in Vietnamese, with Unicode Times font
Những Lời Dạy của Ðức Phật về Hòa Bình và Giá Trị Con Người - Thích Minh Châu
Vietnamese Buddhist Research
Sincere thanks to Venerable Giac-Dong for supplying this
electronic version -
This booklet, which aims to present some Teachings of Lord Buddha on Peace and Human Dignity, is divided into 4 chapters.
Chapter One contains quotations on the gist of His Preaching, His purpose in disseminating the Dharma, His attitude toward other religions and antagonistic doctrines and His love and compassion for the world.
Chapter Two refers to quotations on his Dhamma, his Teachings on five fundamental topics: 1. Dispute and harmony. 2. Anger and gentleness. 3. Harmfulness and harmlessness. 4. Hatred and friendliness. 5. Killing and respect for life.
Chapter Three deals with His community of monks and nuns (Sangha), His preoccupation in laying a code of conduct so as to assure a perfect harmony among its religious members, His advice to His religious disciples to live together in perfect harmony and His rebuke when His monks did not live up to His Teachings.
Chapter Four introduces two categories of people, those who are prone to disputes, to quarrels, to war, and those who are inclined to a life of perfect harmony and peace.
The first ones are those who commit evil actions, those who are foolish and ignorant, and those who are heedless, leading an untamed life. The second ones are those who perform meritorious bodily vocal and mental activities, those who are wise and sage, those who know how to control themselves.
For the sake of contrast, each category of people and their counterpart will be dealt with side by side. Thus, Section 1 deals with evil people and good people. Section 2 refers to foolish people and wise people. Section 3 contrasts untamed people with those who know how to control themselves.
Furthermore, in each chapter and section, first come some general comments of the editor, then the quotations themselves in 3 languages: Pali for those who are interested in the original text and Paali language, English for the English public and Vietnamese for the Vietnamese people.
As mentioned earlier, the quotations are far from exhaustive and many valuable techings may be missing. The editor deems it necessary to state that his booklet is nothing but a humble dedication to the Teachings of Lord Buddha and a modest contribution to the Dhamma propagation in our world today.
Ho Chi Minh City, June 1995
QUOTATIONS OF LORD BUDDHA'S TEACHINGS ON PEACE
In summing up His 45 years of preaching the Dhamma, Lord Buddha declared explicitly that He did preach only suffering, the end of suffering, and nothing else. War brings up suffering. Peace means the end of suffering. That is why He is called "A Messenger for Peace".
He exhorted His disciples to go forth to preach the Dhamma and to explain the Brahmacariya (the holy life) for the welfare of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the advantage, for the happiness of the deities and human beings.
Lord Buddha made it very clear that His purpose in preaching the Dhamma was not to quarrel with other religious leaders and to compete with antagonistic doctrines. There is no quarrel in His preaching. He just shows the way to enlightenment and liberation from all Dukkha.
Lord Buddha is always filled with love and compassion for all living beings. Even when He takes rest, He never foregoes His compassion, and His preaching is performed out of compassion for the world.
" ... Pubbe caaha"m bhikkhave etarahi ca dukkha~n -c'eva pa~n~napemi dukkhassa ca nirodha"m ... ". (M.I.140)
"O Bhikkhus, in former times as well as now-a-days, I have expounded only suffering and the cessation of suffering".
" ... Caratha bhikkhave carika"m bahujana-hitaaya bahujana-sukhaaya lokaanukampaaya atthaaya hitaaya sukhaaya deva-manussaana"m. Maa ekena dve agamettha. Desetha bhikkhave dhammam aadikalyaa.na"m majjhe kalyaa.na"m pariyosaanakalyaa.na"m, saattham savya~njana"m, kevala-paripu.n.na"m parisudha"m brahmacariya"m pakaasetha ... ". (S.I. 105)
"O Bhikkhus, you should go forth, for the welfare of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the advantage, for the welfare, for the happiness of the deities and human beings. Do not go two together. O Bhikkhus, teach the Dhamma, good at the beginning, good in the middle, good at the end, with meaning and with form. Reveal the holy life that is complete and entirely pure".
" ... Naaha"m Bhikkhave lokena vivadaami. Loko va mayaa vivadati. Na bhikkhave dhammavaadi kenaci lokasmi"m vivadati ... ".(S.III. 139)
"O Bhikkhus, I do not quarrel with the world. It is the world that quarrels with me. O Bhikkhus, a preacher of the Dhamma quarrels with nobody in the world".
" ... Sutammeta"m bhante : Brahmaa mettaavihaariiti Tam me ida"m bhante Bhagavaa sakkhi di.t.tho, Bhagavaa hi bhante mettaavihaariiti. Yena kho Jiivaka, raagena yena dosena yena mohena byaapaadavaa assa so raago so doso so moho Tathaagatassa pahiino ucchinnamuulo taalaavatthukato anabhaavakato aayati"m anuppaadadhammo. Sace kho te Jiivaka ida"m sandhaaya bhaasita"m anujaanaami te etan ti. Etad eva kho pana me bhante sandhaaya bhaasita"m ... ". (M.II. 368-370)
"O Blessed One, I have heard this: "How lofty it is, when the heart is filled with love and compassion. O Blessed One, may the Blessed One bear witness to me this fact: The Blessed One is always filled with love and compassion" - "O Jìvaka, what is called lust, hatred and delusion, owing to which anger arises, this lust, this hatred, this delusion has been eradicated by the Tathaagata, cut off at roots, made like a taala tree stump, unable to sprout up again, unable to spring up again in the future. O Jìvaka, if it is what you have the intention to refer to, I share your opinion". - "O Blessed One, this is what I have the intention to refer to".
" ... Jagga"m na
sa"nke na pi bhemi sottu"m,
"Awake, I have no worry.
" ... Ya"m kho ta"m Saariputta sammaa vadamaano vadeyya: asammohadhammo satto loke uppanno bahujanahitaaya bahujanasukhaaya, lokaanukampaaya atthaaya hitaaya sukhaaya devamanussaanan-ti, mam-eva ta"m sammaa vadamaano vadeyya: asammohadhammo satto loke uppanno bahujanahitaaya bahujanasukhaaya, lokaanukampaaya atthaaya hitaaya sukhaaya devamanussaanan-ti ... ". (M. I. 83)
"O Saariputta, those who speak rightly will speak like this: "A living being, not affected by delusion, is born into the world for the welfare of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the interest, for the welfare, for the happiness of the deities and human beings". They would speak rightly of me as follows: "A living being, not affected by delusion, is born into the world for the welfare of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the interest, for the welfare, for the happiness of the deities and of human beings".
" ... Ekamanta"m
nisinno kho Dhammiko upaasako Bhagavanta"m gaathaahi ajjhabhaasi:
"You are all-knowing!
QUOTATIONS ON HIS TEACHINGS
SECTION 2.1: DISPUTE AND HARMONY
Lord Buddha has pointed out to us that sense desires are the root-causes of quarrels, contentions, disputes and wars.
"Another root cause of quarrels and disputes is this distinction between oneself and others, considering them to be equal, or superior or inferior to oneself.
One way to appease all quarrels is the knowledge that "here in this quarrel, we perish".
There is this truly awkward position, pointed out by Lord Buddha in the case of a person who has come to abuse those who do not abuse, who has come to revile those who do not revile, who has come to scold those who do not scold. All these abuses will naturally return to the owner who has proffered them, just as food offered but not accepted will come back to the owner.
Lord Buddha's attitude toward quarrels and disputes is very clear. He has no quarrel with the world. His preaching of the Dhamma has the only purpose to show the way to put an end to suffering. He never claims that his Dhamma is the only truth, everything else is false. He just makes it clear to every one to come, to see and to judge by oneself".
The best way to avoid quarrels and disputes, Lord Buddha advises, is not to uphold any fancy perceptions or false views likely to arouse disputes. Even in case that these fancy perceptions or wrong views do arise, the best way to deal with them is not to take delight in them, not to welcome them, not to take hold of them. Such an attitude will put an end to quarrels, disputes, wars and all demeritorious dhammaa (actions).
Any war, if breaking out, will bring in its trails, untold suffering. Victory engenders hatred and defeat brings up suffering. So the best way is not to resort to wars to solve disputes, but to explore all peaceful means to settle differences and conflicts.
So the Sages who are homeless will not make new ties everywhere they go. They cut off any quarrel likely to happen to anybody.
"Puna ca para"m bhikkhave kaamahetu kaamanidaana"m kaamaadhikarana"m kaamaanam eva hetu, raajaano pi raajuuhi vivadanti, khattiyaa pi khattiyehi vivandanti, braahma.naa pi braahma.nehi vivandanti, gahapatii pi gahapatiihi vivadati, maataa pi puttena vivadati, putto pi maatara vivadati pitaa pi puttena vivadati, putto pi pitaraa vivadati, bhaataa pi bhaataraa vivadati, bhaataa pi bhaginiyaa vivadati, bhaginii pi bhaataraa vivadati, sahaayo pi sahaayena vivadati. Te tattha kalaha- viggaha - vivaadam - aapannaa a~n~nama~n~na"m paa.niihi pi upakkamanti, le.d.duuhi pi upakkamanti, da.n.dehi pi upakkamanti, satthehi pi upakkamanti, te tattha mara.nam pi nigacchanti mara.namattam pi dukkha"m ... ". (M.I. 86)
"Again O Bhikkhus, with sense desires as cause, with sense desires as motives, kings are fighting with kings, khattiyaa are fighting with khattiyaa, braahmanas are fighting with braahmanas, householders are fighting with householders, mother is fighting with son, son is fighting with mother, father is fighting with brother, brother is fighting with sister, sister is fighting with brother, friend is fighting with friend. When they engage themselves in fighting, in quarrels, in disputes, they attack each other with hands, they attack each other with stones, they attack each other with sticks, they attack each other with swords. Thus they are going to death, or to suffering like death".
" ... Puna ca para"m bhikkhave kaamahetu kaamanidaana"m kaamaadhikara.na"m kaamanam eva hetu asicamma"m gahetvaa dhanukalaapa"m sannayhitvaa ubhatoviyuuùha"m sa"ngaama"m pakkhandanti, ususupi khippamaanesu, sattisu pi khippamaanaasu asisu pi vijjotalantesu; te tattha usuuhi pi vijjhanti, sattiyaa pi vijjhanti, asinaa pi siisam chindanti. Te tattha mara.nam pi nigacchanti mara.namattam-pi dukkha"m" (M. I. 86)
"Again O Bhikkhus, with sense desires as causes, with sense desires as motives, they take hold of spears, they take hold of shields, they wear bows and arrows. They arrange themselves in two lines, and arrows are thrown at each other, knives are thrown at each other, swords are slashed at each other. They pierce each other with arrows, they slash each other with knives, they cut each other heads with swords. Thus here, they come to death or to suffering like death".
" ... Samo visesi
"He who builds up such
" ... Pare ca na
"Other people do not
Akkosaka-bhaaradvaajo kupito anattamano yena Bhagavaa ten' upasankami, upasankamitvaa Bhagavanta"m asabbhaahi pharusaahi vaacaahi akkosati paribhaasati. Eva"m vutte Bhagavaa akkosaka-bhaaradvaaja"m braahmana"m etad avoca: "Ta"m ki"m ma~n~nasi braahma.na. Api nu kho te aagacchanti mittaamaccaa ~naati-saalohitaa atithiyo ti?" - "Appekadaa me bho Gotama aagacchanti mittaa-maccaa ~naatisaalohitaa atithiyo ti." - "Tam kim ma~n~nasi braahmana? Api nu tesa"m anuppadesi khaadaniiya"m bhojanniiya"m saayaniiyan ti". -"Appekadaa nesaaha"m bho Gotama anuppademi khaadaniiya"m bhojaniija"m saayaniiyan ti". - "Sace kho pana te braahma.na na patiganhanti kassa ta"m hoti". - "Sace te bho Gotama na patiganhanti, amhaaka"m eva ta"m hoti ... ".
" ... Eva"m meva kho braahma.na yam ta"m amhe anakkosante akkosasi, arosante rosesi, abha.n.dante, bha.n.dasi, ta"m te maya"m na pa.tiga.nhaama, (tav'ev'etam braahma.na hotii) ti tav'ev'etam braahma.na hotiiti.Yo kho braahma.na akkosantam paccakkosati, rosenta"m pa.tiroseti, bha.n.danta"m pa.tibha.n.dati, aya"m vuccati braahma.na sambhu~njati viitiharati. te maya"m tayaa neva sambhu~njaama, na vitiharaama, tav' ev'eta"m braahma.na hoti tav' ev' etam braahma.na hotiiti ... ". (S. I. 161)
"Angry and displeased, braahmana Akkosaka-bhaaradvaaja went to The Enlightened One, and there abused and reviled the Enlightened One in harsh and rude words. Being thus spoken, the Enlightened One said to braahmana Akkosaka-bhaaradvaaja: "What do you think, Braahmana? Do your friends and acquaintances, do your blood relatives and guests pay a visit to you?" - "Yes, venerable Gotama, sometimes, friends and acquaintances, blood relatives and guests pay me a visit" - "What do you think, O braahmana? Do you offer them food to chew, to eat and to taste?" - "Venerable Gotama, sometimes I offer them food to chew, to eat and to taste". - "O braahmana, if they do not accept them, to whom these foods come back?" - "Venerable Gotama, if they do not accept them, these foods come back to us". - "In the same way, O braahmana! you have abused us who do not abuse. You have reviled us who do not revile. You have scolded us who do not scold. We do not accept them from you, so they are all for you, O braahmana, they are all for you, O braahmana. He who abuses back when abused, who reviles back when reviled, who scolds back when scolded, O braahmana, this is called eating them together and sharing them together. We do not eat them with you. We do not share them with you. So they are all for you, O braahmana! They are all for you, O braahmana!".
" ... Yathaavaadii kho aavuso sadevake loke samaarake sabrahmake sassama.nabraahma.niyaa pajaaya sadevamanussaaya na kenaci loke viggayha ti.t.thati ... ". (M.I. 108)
"According to my Teachings, among the worlds of the Devas, of the Maaras and of the Brahmaa, with crowds of recluses and Braahmanas, deities and human beings, there will be no quarrel whatsoever with anyone in the world".
" ... Yatonidaana"m bhikkhu purisam papa~nca sa~n~naasa"nkhaa samudaacaranti, ettha ce natthi abhinanditabba"m abhivaditabba"m ajjhositabba"m, es' ev' anto raagaanusayaana"m, es' ev' anto pa.tighaanusayaana"m, es' ev'anto di.t.thaanusayaana"m, es' ev'anto vicikicchaanusayaana"m, es' ev'anto maanaanu-sayaana"m, es' ev'anto bhavaraagaanusayaana"m, es' ev'anto avijjaanusayaana"m, es'ev'anto da.n.daadaana-satthaadaana-kalaha viggaha-vivaada-tuvantuva-pesu~n~na-musaa vaadaana"m, etth'ete paapakaa akusalaa dhammaa aparisesaa nirujjhantiti ... ". (M.I. 109-110)
"O Bhikkhu, owing to whatever cause and reason, a number of fancy perceptions take hold of a person. If here there will be no delight in, no welcome to, no taking hold of, then this is the eradication of latent tendency of lust, the eradication of latent tendency of anger, the eradication of latent tendency of view, the eradication of latent tendency of doubt, the eradication of latent tendency of pride, the eradication of latent tendency of craving for existence, the eradication of latent tendency of ignorance, the eradication of taking hold of weapons, swords, quarrels, contentions, disputes, the eradication of words of discord, of lies. Here, these wicked, unwholesome dhammaa vanish without remainder".
" ... Jaya"m
" ... Oka"m pahaaya
"The sage leaves home,
SECTION 2.2 : ANGER AND GENTLENESS
Anger acts like a tight screw-driver that grips at anybody likely to fall under its sway and is considered a destroyer of mankind.
So the best way is not to speak harsh words to anyone, because harsh words will attract vindicative words, and even bodily punishments.
Even Sakka, king of Deva, advises the deities not to become angry, because anger crushes down a wicked man, as a moutain crushes a man.
So the wise ones subdue anger with no anger.
Any one worthy of the name of Braahmana should be friendly among the enemies, and good tempered among the angry.
Whoever is able to check his rising anger is worthy of the name of a charioteer, while other people who are not able to do so, are merely rein-holders.
Sakka, king of Devas advises the deities not to allow anger to overcome them, not to raise anger against anger, because without anger, no harm will be done to oneself, to other, to both.
A sage who has completely cut off his anger is called a truly good natured man.
A person who does not give vent to his anger, is truly a peaceful man. Worse of the two is the man who, being abused, abuses back. He is both victorious, over himself and over others, if he refrains from abusing back.
" ... Natthi raagasamo
"There is no fire like
the fire of lust.
" ... Ti.nadosaani
"Grass is the destroyer
" ... Maa voca
"Speak no harsh words to
Bhuutapubba"m bhikhave Sakko devaanam Indo Sudhammaaya"m Sabhaaya"m deve Taavati"mse anunayamaane taaya"m velaaya"m ima"m gaatha"m abhaasi:
" ... Kodhovo
O Bhikkhus, in former times, Sakka, king of deities, in the Hall of Sudhamma, in order to appease the deities of the Thirty-three gods, at that time spoke these verses:
"Do not allow anger to
" ... Akkodhena jine
"Subdue anger with no
" ... Aviruddham
"Friendly among the
" ... Yo ve
"Whoso has stopped his
" ... Bhuutapubba"m Bhikkhave Sakko devaana"m Indo Sudhamaaya"m sabhaaya"m deve Taavati"mse anunayamaane, taaya"m velaaya"m ima"m gaatha"m abhaasi.
" ... Maa vo kodho
"O Bhikkhus, in former times, in order to appease the deities of the Thirty three gods, in the Hall of Sudhamma, Sakka, king of the deities, spoke this verse:
"Do not allow anger to
" ... Yassa c'eta"m
"In whom anger has been
cut off completely,
" ... Akkodhassa kuto
"Those who have no anger, whence does anger come. He who lives with restraint, with right livelihood, is free through right knowledge. If he lives such a life, his life is truly peaceful. Worse of the two is he who, being abused, abuses back. Those who are abused and do not return the abuses will be both victorious, victorious over themselves, and victorious over others. They will find happiness for themselves and for others, too. And those who abuse will understand, and their anger will be appeased gradually".
SECTION 2.3: HARMFULNESS AND HARMLESSNESS
To harm the harmless is like to throw fine dust against the wind with the result that one has to suffer the consequences of one's actions.
Lord Buddha in His survey over the world, clearly states that all living beings hold their own self dearest. So if one loves his own self, should not do harm to the self of others.
Everyone yearns for happiness. To harm others so as to secure one's own happiness is totally inappropriate. Not to harm others is the most appropriate way to find one's own happiness.
To Lord Buddha, only he who does not harm anybody, is truly named "a harmless One".
The Sages, the wise ones do not harm any living beings. Their actions, bodily, vocal or mental, are wholly harmless. That is why they deserve to be called the Sages.
"Thinking of his own
benefits, he does harm to others.
" ... Naa
phusanta"m phusati ca.
"Without touch, there is
" ... Sabbaa
"My mind wanders in every direction in this world. But I can not find anyone who is dearer than one own self. If in everybody the self is so dear, so cherished, those who have loved themselves should not do harm to the self of others".
" ... Sukhakaamaani
"Living beings yearn for happiness. Those who use weapons to harm other people so as to seek their own happiness, will never find happiness in the next world".
" ... Sukhakaamaani
"Living beings yearn for happiness. Those who do not use weapons to harm other people so as to seek their own happiness, will find happiness in the next world".
Ahi"msaka-bhaaradvaajo braahma.no Bhagavanta"m etad-avoca: "Ahi"msakaaha"m bho Gotama, ahi"msakaaha"m bho Gotamaati". Bhagvaa braahama.na"m gaathaaya ajjhabhaasi:
" ... Yathaa
naama"m tathaa c'assa
Braahmana Ahimsaka Bhaaradvaaja said to the Blessed One: "Venerable Gotama, I am named the Harmless One (Ahimsaka). O Gotama! I am named the Harmless One (Ahimsaka)". The Buddha replied to the braahmana with these verses:
"Your action should be
in accordance with your name.
" ... Na tena ariyo
" ... Ala"nkato
ce'pi sama"m careyya,
"Although bedecked himself, if he lives in peace, subdued, determined, leading a pure life, having laid aside weapons towards all sentient beings, he is really a braahmana, a recluse, a Bhikkhu".
" ... Ahi"msakaa ye
"The Sages do not harm
SECTION 2.4: HATRED AND FRIENDLINESS
Lord Buddha makes it very clear that, with a heart filled with hatred and animosity, such a man cannot understand well and speak well. A person who nurtures his displeasure and animosity cannot appease his hatred. With mindfulness alone, hatred cannot be appeased. Only with a mind, day and night, delighted in harmlessness and with loving kindness towards all creatures, in him hatred cannot be found.
It is an eternal Law that decrees that hatred cannot be ceased by hatred. But by loving kindness alone, can hatred be appeased. So happy will be our life, when we live without hatred among the hatred.
A person who knows how to subdue himself so that there will be no hatred, no enmity, such a person will reach Nibbaana, because in Nibbaana, there will be no hatred. Lord Buddha, who has compassion for all living beings, will not be delighted in hatred, so He will do whatever he can in order to appease and put an end to all animosity and hatred in this world.
" ... Na
"O Paccanìka, with your mind corrupted and with your heart full of animosity, how I can find in you good knowledge and good speech? He who subdues his animosity, his displeasure of heart, he who gives up enmity, truly will know well and speak well".
" ... Akkocchi
ma"m, avadhi ma"m,
"He abuses me, he
" ... Akkocchi ma"m
"He abuses me, he
Atha kho Ma.nibhaddo yakkho yena Bhagavaa ten'upasa"nkami, upasa"nkamitvaa Bhagavato santike ima"m gaatha"m abhaasi:
" ... Satimato sadaa
Yakkha Manibhadda came up to the Blessed One and spoke this verse:
"Always mindful, good
luck is here.
" ... Na hi verena
"Hatred never be
appeased by hatred in this world.
" ... Susukha"m
" Happy indeed will be
" ... Akkodhana"m
"He who is without
" ... Sace neresi
"If you subdue yourself
SECTION 2.5: KILLING AND RESPECT FOR LIFE
Lord Buddha has a respect for life, any life, even the life of an insect and of a plant. He sets Himself as example, not to throw remaining food on green vegetation or in the water where there are small insects. He advises His disciples not to kill living beings to offer food to Him and to His disciples, because in doing so, they store up much demerit.
He makes it very clear that, killing living beings will lead to hell, to the animal kingdom and to the world of the petas. And the lightest evil result to be obtained is to be born as human being, but with very short life. Moreover, killing living beings will bring up fear and hatred in the present, in the future, and pain and suffering in mind.
So Lord Buddha advises us not to kill, because all sentient beings tremble at the stick, to all life is dear. The first precept to be undertaken by a layman is this respect for life, this refrain from killing living beings. And a braahmana worthy of his name, a sage should be one that practises this respect for life, wholly and completely.
" ... Atthi ca me aya"m pi.n.dapaato atirekadhammo cha.d.diyadhammo. Sace aaka"nkhatha bhu~njatha. Sace tumhe na bhu~njissatha idaanaaha"m appaharite vaa cha.d.dessaami appaa.nake ca udake opilaapessaamii ti." (M.I, 13)
"And there is this remaining food of mine that should be thrown away. If you want, please eat. If you do not want to eat, I shall throw it in a place where there is no green grass or I shall sink it down in the water where there are no insects".
" ... Yo kho Jiivaka, Tathaagata"m vaa Tathaagatasaavaka"m vaa uddissa paa.na"m aarabhati so pa~ncahi .thaanehi bahu"m apu~n~na"m pasavati: Ya"m pi so eva"m aaha: gacchatha amuka"m naama paa.na"m aanethaati, iminaa pa.thamena .thaanena bahu"m apu~n~na"m pasavati. Ya"m pi so paa.no galappavedhakena aaniyamaano dukkha"m domanassa"m pa.tisa"mvedeti, iminaa dutiyena .thaanena bahu"m apu~n~na"m pasavati; Ya"m pi so eva"m aaha: Gacchatha ima"m paa.na"m aarabhathaati, iminaa tatiyena .thaanena bahu"m apu~n~na"m pasavati. Ya"m pi so paa.no aarabhiyamaano dukkha"m domanassa"m pa.tisamvedeti, iminaa catutthena .thaanena bahu"m apu~n~na"m pasavati. Ya"m pi so Tathaagata"m vaa Tathaagatasaavaka"m vaa akappiyena aasaadeti, iminaa pa~ncamena .thaanena bahu"m apu~n~na"m pasavati. Yo kho Jiivaka Tathaagata"m vaa Tathaagatasaavaka"m vaa uddissa paa.na"m aarabhati so imehi pa~ncahi .thaanehi bahu"m apu~n~na"m pasavati ... ". (M.II. 371)
"O Jìvaka, if anybody for Lord Buddha's sake or for the sake of Lord Buddha's disciples, kills living beings, he will store up much demerit, owing to five causes. When he speaks thus: "Go and bring this animal here", this is the first cause, owing to which he stores up much demerit. This animal, being led to dragged by the neck, suffers pains and sorrow, this is the second cause owing to which he stores up much demerit. When he speaks thus: "Go and kill this animal", this is the third cause, owing to which he stores up much demerit. When the animal is being killed and suffers pains and sorrow, this is the fourth cause owing to which he stores up much demerit. When this man offers food to the Tathaagata or to the Tathaagata's disciples, not in accordance with the Dhamma, this is the fifth cause, owing to which he stores up much demerit. O Jìvaka, if anybody for Lord Buddha's sake, or for the sake of Lord Buddha's disciples kills living beings, he will store up much demerit".
" ... Paa.naatipaato bhikkhave aasevito bhaavito bahuliikato nirayasa"mvattaniko tiracchaana-yonisa"mvattaniko pittivisayasa"mvattaniko. Yo sabbalahuso paa.naatipaatassa vipaako manussabhuutassa appaayukasa"mvattaniko hoti ... ". (A.IV. 247)
"O Bhikkhus, killing beings, if performed, if trained to do so, if increased to the full, will lead to hell, to animal kingdom, to the world of the petas. The lightest evil result of killing living beings is to be born as human being but with very short life".
" ... Ye te Jiivaka eva"m aaha"msu: Sama.nam Gotama"m uddissa paa.na"m aarabhanti tam sama.no Gotamo jaana"m uddisska.ta"m ma"msa"m, paribhu~njati pa.ticcakamman ti, na me te vuttavaadino, abbhaacikkhanti ca pana man te asataa abhuutena. Tiihi kho aha"m Jiivaka .thaanehi ma"msa"m aparibhogan ti vadaami: di.t.tha"m suta"m parisa"nkita"m. Imehi kho aha"m Jiivaka tiihi .thaanehi ma"msa"m aparibhogan-ti vadaami : Tiihi kho aha"m Jiivaka .thaanehi ma"msam parbhogan-ti vadaami : adi.t.tha"m asuta"m aparisa"nkitam. Imehi kho aha"m Jiivaka tiihi .thaanehi ma"msa"m paribhogan ti vadaami ... ". (M.II. 369)
"O Jìvaka, those who speak thus: "For the sake of recluse Gotama, people kill living beings. And recluse Gotama, although he knows this, eats such meat that is being killed for his own sake, that is being prepared for his own sake", such people do not speak my words correctly. They misinterpret me. O Jìvaka, I declare that in three circumstances, meat is not allowed to be eaten: when seen, heard, and suspected. O Jìvaka, I declare that in three circumstances, meat is allowed to be eaten: Not to be seen, not to be heard, not to be suspected. O Jìvaka, I declare that in three circumstances, meat is allowed to be eaten".
" ... Ya"m gahapatii paa.naatipaatii paa.naatipaatapaccayaa di.t.thadhammika"m pi bhaya"m vera"m pasavati samparaayika"m pi bhaya"m vera"m pasavati, cetasika"m pi dukkha"m domanassa"m pa.tisa"mvedeti. Paa.naatipaataa pa.tivirato neva di.t.tha dhammika"m bhaya"m vera"m pasavatii, na samparaayika"m bhaya"m vera"m pasavati, na cetasika"m dukkha"m domanassa"m pa.tisa"mvedeti. Paa.naatipaataa pa.tiviratassa eva"m ta"m bhaya"m vera"m vuupasanta"m hoti ... ". (A.V. 183)
"O householder, killing living beings, due to killing living beings, fear and hatred arise in the present, fear and hatred will arise in the future, thereby bringing up pain and suffering in mind. Refrain from killing living beings, fear and hatred do not arise in the present, will not arise in the future, there by not bringing up pain and suffering in mind. Those who refrain from killing living beings will calm down this fear and hatred".
" ... Sabbe tasanti
"Everybody trembles at
" ... Idha bhikhave ariyasaavako iti pa.ti-sa~ncikkhati" yaavajiiva"m arahanto paa.naatipaata"m pahaaya paa.naatipaataa pa.tivirataa nihitada.n.daa nihitasatthaa lajjii dayaapannaa sabbapaa.nabhuutahitaanukampii viharanti, aha"m pa'ajja ima~n ca ratti"m ima~n ca divasa"m paa.naatipaata"m pahaaya paa.naatipaataa pa.tivirato nihitada.n.do nihitasattho lajjii dayaapanno sabbapaa-.nabhuuta-hitaanu-kampii viharaami, iminaa pi a"ngena arahata"m anukaromi uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissatiiti ... ". (A.IV. 249)
"Here, O Bhikkhus, the ariyan disciple thinks as follows: Up to the end of his life, the Arahant refrains from killing living beings, gives up killing, lays aside stick, lays aside sword, has shame, endowed with loving kindness, living with consideration toward the happiness of all living beings and of all creatures. Today, this night and this day, I also refrain from killing living beings, give up killing, lay aside stick, lay aside sword, have shame, endowed with loving kindness, living with consideration toward the happiness of all living beings and of all creatures, In this matter, I follow the example of the Arahant. I shall observe the day of the Uposatha".
" ... Nidhaaya
"He who lays aside the
stick towards sentient beings,
" ... Idha bhikkhave ariyasaavako paa.naatipaata"m pahaaya paa.naatipaataa pa.tivirato hoti. Paa.naatipaataa pa.tivirato bhikkhave ariyasaavako aparima.naana"m sattaana"m abhaya"m deti avera"m deti avyaapajjha"m deti; aparimaa.naana"m sattaana"m abhaya"m datvaa avera"m datvaa avyaapajjha"m datvaa aprarimaa.nassa abhayassa averassa avyaapajjhassa bhaagii hoti. Idha bhikkhave pa.thama"m daana"m mahaadaana"m agga~n~nam ratta~n~na"m va"msa~n~na"m poraa.na"m asa"n ki.n.na"m asa"n"nk ki.n.nabubha"m na sa"n"nk kiiyati na sa"n kiiyissati appa.tiku.t.tha"m sama.nehi vi~n~nuuhi ... ". (A. IV. 246)
"Here, O Bhikkhus, the ariyan disciple does not kill living beings, gives up killing. O Bhikkhus, the Ariyan disciple who gives up killing, gives no fear to innumerable living beings, give no hatred to innumerable living beings, give harmlessness to innumerable living beings. Having given no fear, no hatred and harmlessness to innumerable living beings, the Ariyan disciple has his share in innumerable fearlessness, in no hatred and in harmlessness. O Bhikkhus, this is first class charity (donation), great charity, timeless charity that is not despised by recluses and braahmanas".
QUOTATIONS ON HIS SANGHA
When Lord Buddha sets up his Sangha for the first time, His first preoccupation is to lay down such a code of conduct so as to assure a perfect harmony among His religious members. So He teaches six Dhammas to be remembered or the six Harmonies. He advises His religious disciple to live together in perfect harmony, mixing with each other like water and milk, looking at each other with sympathetic eyes. When the monks of Kosambi quarelled with each other, His upbraidings were severe and straight forward.
Sakka, king of the deities, has great respect for the Sangha, because the Sangha personify those who are not fighters among the fighters, those who are peaceful when others are self-armed. He considers them a double winner, a victor over themselves and a victor over others, those who, being scolded, do not scold back.
Lord Buddha advises the monks to make this well-expounded Dhamma-Vinaya (Law and Discipline) shine with their forbearance and gentleness, and lead a life serene and calm, a life of happiness when their mind has attained peace over themselves and over the world.
" ... Atha kho Bhagavaa bhikkhuu aamantesi: "Cha y'ime bhikkhave dhammaa saaraa.niiyaa piyakara.naa garukara.naa sa"ngahaaya avivaadaaya saamaggiyaa ekiibhaavaaya sa"mvattanti. Katame cha: Idha bhikkhave bhikkuno metta"m kaayakamma"m paccupa.t.thita"m hoti sabrahmacaarisu aavii c'eva raho ca. Aya"m pi dhammo saaraa.niiyo piyakara.no garukara.no sa"ngahaaya avivaadaaya saamaggiyaa ekiibhaavaaya sa"mvattati. Puna ca param bhikkhave bhikkhuno metta"m vaciikamma"m ... manokamma"m paccupa.t.thita"m hoti sabrahmacaarisu aavii c'eva raho ca. Aya"m pi dhammo ... ekiibhaavaaya sa"mvattati. Puna ca para"m bhikkhave bhikkhu ye te laabhaa dhammikaa dhammaladdhaa, antamaso pattapariyaapannamatta"m pi tathaaruupehi laabhehi appat.tivibhattabhogii hoti siilavantehi sabrahmacaariihi saadhaara.nabhogii. Aya"m-pi dhammo ... ekiibhaavaaya sa"mvattati. Puna ca para"m bhikkhave bhikkhu yaani taani siilaani akha.n.daani acchiddaani asabalaani akammaasaani bhujissaani vi~n~nuppasatthaani aparaama.t.thaani samaadhisa"mvattanikaani, tathaaruupesu siilesu siilasaama~n~nagato viharati sabrahmacaariihi aavii c'eva raho ca. Aya"m-pi dhammo ... ekiibhaavaaya sa"mvattati. Puna ca para"m bhikhave bhikkhu yaa 'ya"m di.t.thi ariyaa niyyaanikaa niyyaati takkarassa sammaadukkhakkhayaaya tathaaruupaaya di.t.thiyaa di.t.thisama~n~nagato viharati sabrahmacaariihi aavii c' eva raho ca. Aya"m-pi dhammo saaraa.niiyo piyakara.no garukara.no sa"ngahaaya avivaadaaya saamaggiyaa ekibhaavaaya sa"mvattati ... Ime kho bhikkhave cha saaraa.niiyaa dhammaa piyakara.naa garukara.naa sa"ngahaaya avivaadaaya saamaggiyaa ekiibhaavaaya sa"mvattanti ... ". (M.I. 322)
The Blessed One spoke thus to the Bhikkhus: "O Bhikkhus, there are six Dhammas that should be remembered, building up mutual love, mutual respect, leading to harmony, to no quarrel, to mutual understanding, to common aspiration. What are the six? Here O Bhikkhus, the monk perfroms his bodily activities imbued with love towards his religious companions, in public as well as in private. This Dhamma should be remembered, building up mutual love, mutual respect, leading to harmony, to no quarrel, to mutual understanding, to common aspiration. Again O Bhikkhus, the monk performs his vocal activities... his mental activities imbued with love towards his religious companions in public as well as in private. This Dhamma should be remembered... (as above) to common aspiration. Again O Bhikkhus, anything that is accepted according to Dhamma, lawfully, even offerings deposited in the begging bowl, the monk should not be the one who does not share them, he should share them with his virtuous religious companions. This Dhamma should be remembered... (as above)... to common aspiration. Again O Bhikkhus, as to monastic rules, which are unbroken, unspoilt, unsullied, which have no impurities, leading to emancipation, praised by the wise, which are not to be grasped at, leading to concentration, the monk should live in keeping with these rules along with his religious companions, in public as well as in private. This Dhamma should be remembered... (as above)... to common aspiration. Again O Bhikkhus, as to the views which belong to the Noble Ones, leading upwards, helping those who practise them, putting an end to suffering, the monk should uphold these views along with his religious companions, in public as well as in private. This Dhamma should be remembered, building up mutual love, mutual respect, leading to harmony, to no quarrel, to mutual understanding, to common aspiration. O Bhikkhus, these six Dhamma should be remembered, building up mutual love, mutual respect, leading to harmony, to no quarrel, to mutual understanding, to common aspiration.
" ... Yathaakatha"m pana tumhe Anuruddhaa samaggaa sammodamaanaa avivadamaanaa khiirodakiibhuutaa a~n~nama~n~na"m piyacakkhuuhi sampassantaa viharathaati. Idha mayha"m bhante eva"m hoti: Laabhaa vata me; suladdha"m vata me yo 'ham evaruupehi sabrahmacaariihi saddhi"m viharaamiiti. Tassa mayha"m bhante imesu aayasmantesu metta"m kaayakamma"m paccupa.t.thita"m aavii c'eva raho ca; metta"m vaciikamman paccupa.t.thitam aavii c'eva raho ca; metta"m manokama"m paccupa.t.thita"m aavii c'eva raho ca. Tassa mayha"m bhante eva"m hoti: Yan-nuunaaha"m saka"m citta"m nikkhipitvaa imesa"m yeva aayasmantaana"m cittassa vasena vatteyan-ti. So kho aha"m bhante saka"m citta"m nikkhipitvaa imesa"m yeva aayasmantaanam cittassa vasena vattaami. Naanaa hi kho no bhante kaayaa eka~n ca pana ma~n~ne cittan ti ... ". (M.I. 206)
"O Anuruddhaa, how all of you have lived happily in harmony with each other, like milk mixed with water, looking at each other with sympathetic eyes!" - "O Blessed One, here we have heard: "Indeed, it is a great advantage to me! Indeed it is very beneficient to me, when I could live together with such brahma-farers. O Blessed One, that is why toward such brahma-farers, I set up bodily activities imbued with love, in front of them and behind them. I set up vocal activities... I set up mental activities imbued with love, in front of them and behind them. That is why I have such a thinking: "I should give up my own mind and live in accordance with their mind". I give up my own mind and live in accordance with their mind. Although we have different bodies, it seems as if we have the same mind".
" ... Ta"m ki"m ma~n~natha Bhikkhave? Yasmi"m tumhe samaye bha.n.danajaataa kalahajaataa vivaadaapannaa a~n~nama~n~na"m mukhasattiihi vitudantaa viharatha, api nu tumhaaka"m tasmi"m samaye metta"m kaayakamma"m paccupa.t.thitam hoti sabrahmacaarisu aavii c' eva raho ca, metta"m vaciikamma"m paccupa.t.thita"m hoti sabrahmacaarisu aavii c'eva raho ca, metta"m manokamma"m paccupa.t.thita"m hoti sabrahmacaarisu aavii c'eva raho caati" - "No h'eta"m Bhante". - "Iti kira bhikkhave yasmi"m tumhe samaye bha.n.danajaataa kalahajaataa vivaadaapannaa a~n~nama~n~na"m mukhasattiihi vitudantaa viharatha, n'eva tumhaaka"m tasmi"m samaye metta"m kaayakamma"m paccupa.t.thita"m hoti sabrahmacaarisu aavii c'eva raho ca, na metta"m vaciikamma"m paccupa.t.thitam hoti sabrahmacaarisu aavii c'eva raho ca, na metta"m manokamma"m paccupa.t.thita"m hoti sabrahmacaarisu aavii c'eva raho ca. Atha ki~n-carahi tumhe moghapurisaa ki"m jaanantaa kim passantaa bha.n.danajaataa kalahajaataa vivaadaapannaa a~n~nama~n~na"m mukhasattiihi vitudantaa viharatha: te na c'eva a~n~nama~n~na"m nijjhaapetha na ca nijjhatti"m upetha. Ta"m hi tumhaaka"m moghapurisaa bhavissati diigharatta"m ahitaaya dukkhaayaati. (M.I. 321)
"O Bhikkhus, what do you think? When you are living quarrelling with each other, competing, disputing, arguing with each other, harming each other with the weapons of the tongue, during these times, do you behave towards your religious companions with bodily activities imbued with love, with vocal activities imbued with love, with mental activities imbued with love in public as well as in private?" - "No, O Blessed One!" - "Thus O Bhikkhus, you have acknowledged that when you are living quarrelling with each other, competing, disputing, arguing with each other, harming each other with the weapons of the tongue, during these times you behave towards your religious companions, with bodily activities not imbued with love, with vocal activities not imbued with love, with mental activities not imbued with love in public as well as in private. Thus O Ignorant Ones, what do you know, what do you see that you are living quarrelling with each other, competing, disputing, arguing with each other, harming each other with the weapons of the tongue. You do not try to understand each other, to accept understanding, you do not try to make peace with each other, to accept peace settlement. Thus, you Ignorant Ones, you will come to misfortune, to suffering for a long time to come".
Sakho devaana"m Indo imaa gaathaaya abhaasi:
" ... Yo have balavaa
Sakka, king of the deities spoke these verses:
"Those who have powers
but show patience with the weak,
" ... Idha kho ta"m bhikkhave sobhatha, ya"m tumhe evam svaakhyaate Dhammavinaye pabbajitaa samaanaa khamaa ca bhaveyyaatha sorataa caa ti ... ". (S.I. 222)
"O Bhikkhu, you should make this well expounded Dhamma-Vinaya shine, with your forbearance and gentleness, having gone forth into homelessness".
" ... Sabbadaa ve
"Truly, he lives in
" ... Tathaagatassa
The Tathaagata, the Buddha,
QUOTATIONS ON PEOPLE PRONE TO WAR AND PEOPLE PRONE TO PEACE
SECTION 4.1: WICKED PEOPLE AND GOOD PEOPLE
In general, there are two classes of people in the world, those who are inclined to quarrel, addicted to dispute, prone to war, and those who are bent to living in harmony, happy in friendliness, and prone to peace.
In the first class , can be classified wicked folk, ignorant people, and heedless ones. In the second class of people, are ranged those who are good folk, wise people and heedful ones.
Lord Buddha has made a clear distinction between wickedness and goodness and advises all his disciples not to do evil actions, to perform good ones and to purify their own heart. He knows that it is easy to do evil actions. To perform meritorious ones is far more difficult. But His disciples should know how to select between evil and good, because wicked people will go to Hell and undergo untold suffering, while good ones will go to Heaven and enjoy peaceful bliss. Moreover good ones even from afar shine like the mountain of snow with their meritorious actions, while bad ones are enveloped in darkness like an arrow shot in the night.
So Lord Buddha advises us not to make friends with wicked ones, but to associate only with good friends. He points out very clearly that if we yearn for life, we should avoid wickedness like we shun poison, because a hand free from wound can handle poison with impunity. The dhammas of the good ones do not decay, but go along with the good ones where meritorious actions will lead them. Good actions will welcome the well doer who has gone from this world to the next world, just as relatives welcome a dear one who has come back.
So the problem poses itself very clear and definite. Wickedness and goodness are all done by oneself. Wickedness will lead to quarrel, to dispute and to war, while goodness will lead to harmony, to friendliness and to peace.
" ... Sabbapaapassa
"Not to do any evil,
" ... Sukaraani
"Easy to perform are bad
" ... Akata"m
"Better not to do evil
" ... Gabbha"m eke
"Some take birth in the
" ... Duure santo
"Even from afar the good
" ... Yassa paapa"m
"Whosoever uses good
" ... Na bhaje paapake
"Do not associate with
" ... Vaa.nijo'va
"Just as a merchant,
with few companions and with great wealth,
" ... Paa.nimhi ce va.no
"If there is no wound on
" ... Jiiranti ve
"Even the royal chariot
well- decorated becomes old,
"Being absent a long
time, a man has
" ... Attanaa' va
"By oneself, evil deed
SECTION 4.2: FOOLISH PEOPLE AND WISE PEOPLE
Lord Buddha clearly sees the different attitude of the foolish one and of the wise one toward this world. The foolish one is attracted by, enamoured of, and becomes a slave to this world. But the wise one has no attraction, no fancy to this world and will act as a master to this world. But His statement that fear, distress and dangers arise to the foolish ones but not to the wise ones, acts as a grave warning to all of us.
Then He proceeds to say that the foolish one behaves in such a way that he becomea an enemy to himself. And when fame and name come to him, he undergoes misfortune and distress. The wise one acts in a totally different way. He is heedful among the heedless, fully awake among the sleepy, so he advances forward like a swift horse, leaving behind the foolish ones. The wise one conquers Maara and his hordes, makes his mind straight, practises meditation steadfastly, strong in determination and perseverance and thus enjoys the bliss of Nibbaana. With his wisdom, he outshines this world composed of the worldlings, blind and foolish. And the wise one stands like a lotus, sweet-smelling and lovely born on a rubbish heap thrown upon a highway. Bliss of Nibbaana and bliss of peace come to the wise ones but never to the foolish ones.
" ... Etha
"Come and look at this
" ... Yaani kaanici, bhikkhave, bhayaani uppajjanti, sabbaani taani baalato uppajjanti, no pa.n.ditato. Ye keci upaddavaa uppajjanti, sabbe te baalato uppajjanti, no pa.n.ditato. Ye keci upasaggaa uppajjanti, sabbe te baalato uppajjanti no pa.n.ditato ... ". (M.III. 61)
"What kinds of fear, O Bhikkhus, that may arise, they arise to the foolish one, but not to the wise one. What kinds of distress that may arise, they arise to the foolish one, but not to the wise one. What kinds of danger that may arise, they arise to the foolish one, but not to the wise-one".
" ... Caranti baalaa
"The fool of weak
" ... Yaavadeva
"The foolish one himself
" ... Appamatto
"Heedful among the
"The swans fly on the
path of the sun,
" ... Phandana"m
"The mind is wavering,
" ... Te jhaayino
"Those who practise
" ... Yathaa
"Just as on a rubbish
" ... Eva"m
"Even so, among beings
of rubbish nature,
SECTION 4.3: UNRULY PEOPLE AND SELF CONTROLLED PEOPLE
Lord Buddha knows verry well the mind and the heart of human beings. He knows that the foolish people indulge in heedlessness, while the wise people protect heedfulness as precious treasure. So He advises the wise people with right effort, heedfulness and discipline to build up an island which no flood can overflow. Who is heedless before but afterwards heedless no more, will outshine this world, like a moon free from clouds.
To Lord Buddha, a person who has conquered thousand thousand people in the battlefield cannot be compared with a person who is victorious over himself, because he is truly a supreme winner. A person who controls himself will always behave in a self-tamed way. And a self well-tamed and restrained becomes a worthy and reliable refuge, very difficult to obtain. A person who knows how to sit alone, to sleep alone, to walk alone, to subdue oneself alone will take delight in living in deep forests. Such a person is a trustworthy teacher because being well tamed himself, he then instructs others accordingly. So Lord Buddha advises the well tamed people to control themselves. Only the well tamed people, the heedful people, know the way to stop contentions, quarrels and disputes and how to live in harmony, in friendliness and in peace.
"The fools, the ignorant
people indulge in heedlessness.
" ... U.t.thaanen'
" ... Yo ca pubbe
"Who is heedless before
" ... Yo sahassa"m
"Although he has
" ... Attaa have
" ... Attaa hi attano
"One should take oneself
as one's own refuge,
" ... Attaa hi attano
"One should take oneself
as one's own refuge
" ... Ekaasana"m
"A person who sits
alone, sleeps alone,
" ... Attaana"m ce
"You should do to
" ... Udaka"m hi
"The supplier of water
leads the water,
Sincere thanks to Venerable Giac-Dong for supplying this
electronic version - Binh Anson, 05-2001
(Chân thành cám ơn Ðại đức Giác Ðồng đã gửi tặng phiên bản điện tử -- Bình Anson, 05-2001)
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