Lily de Silva, M.A., Ph.D.
University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
VU-Times font (Viet-Pali Unicode)
is used in this document
1. The Infinitive
The suffix -tuṃ is added to the root of the verb or the verbal base
with or sometimes without the connecting vowel -i- to form the infinitive.
|pac + i + tuṃ
|khād + i +
|gam + tuṃ =
|dā + tuṃ =
ṭhā + tuṃ =
|pā + tuṃ =
2. Examples in sentence formation
The farmer wishes to plough the field.
1. Kassako khettaṃ kasituṃ icchati.
2. Dārako phalāni khādituṃ rukkhaṃ āruhati.
The child climbs the tree to eat fruits.
3. Manussā samaṇehi pañhe pucchituṃ vihāraṃ āgacchanti.
Men come to the monastery to ask questions from the recluses.
4. Kumārā kīḷituṃ mittehi saha samuddaṃ gacchanti.
Boys go to the sea with friends to play.
3. Translate into English:
1. Kumārā vanamhi mittehi saha kīḷitvā bhattaṃ bhuñjituṃ gehaṃ
2. Migā tiṇaṃ khāditvā udakaṃ pātuṃ pabbatamhā uyyānaṃ āgacchanti.
3. Vāṇijassa putto bhaṇḍāni āharituṃ rathena nagaraṃ gacchati.
4. Yācako mātulassa kuddālena āvāṭaṃ khaṇituṃ icchati.
5. Amaccā bhūpālaṃ passituṃ pāsādamhi sannipatanti.
6. Goṇā uyyāne āhiṇḍitvā kassakassa khettaṃ āgacchanti.
7. Upāsakā samaṇānaṃ dānaṃ dātuṃ vihāraṃ pavisanti.
8. Rathena nagaraṃ gantuṃ puriso gehasmā nikkhamati.
9. Brāhmaṇo vejjena saddhiṃ nahāyituṃ udakaṃ otarati.
10. Coro amaccassa gehaṃ pavisituṃ uyyāne āhiṇḍati.
11. Sīho pabbatamhi sayitvā uṭṭhāya migaṃ hantuṃ oruhati.
12. Udakaṃ otaritvā vatthāni dhovituṃ rajako puttaṃ pakkosati.
13. Tathāgataṃ passitvā vandituṃ upāsako vihāraṃ pavisati.
14. Khettaṃ kasituṃ kassako kuddālaṃ ādāya gehā nikkhamati.
15. Sarehi mige vijjhituṃ luddakā sunakhehi saha araññaṃ pavisanti.
16. Narā gāmamhā nikkhamitvā nagare vasituṃ icchanti.
17. Sakuṇe passituṃ amaccā kumārehi saha pabbataṃ āruhanti.
18. Pabbatasmā rukkhaṃ ākaḍḍhituṃ vāṇijena saha kassako gacchati.
19. Phalāni khādituṃ makkaṭā rukkhesu caranti.
20. Paṇḍito sugatassa sāvakehi saddhiṃ bhāsituṃ icchati.
21. Samuddaṃ taritvā dīpaṃ gantvā vatthāni āharituṃ vāṇijā icchanti.
22. Pupphāni saṃharitvā udakena āsiñcituṃ upāsako kumāre ovadati.
23. Ajassa kāyaṃ hatthehi phusituṃ dārako icchati.
24. Brāhmaṇassa gehe āsanesu nisīdituṃ rajakassa puttā icchanti.
25. Pātuṃ udakaṃ yācitvā dārako rodati.
4. Translate into Pāli:
1. Goats roam in the park to eat leaves and drink water.
2. The wicked man wishes to hit the dog with his foot.
3. Friends go to the park to play with their dogs.
4. The lay devotee wishes to come home and instruct his sons.
5. The deity wishes to go to the monastery and speak to the Buddha.
6. The good man wishes to protect virtues and give alms.
7. Pigs run from the village to enter the forest.
8. The farmer asks for a hoe from the merchant to dig pits in his field.
9. Lay devotees assemble in the monastery to worship the Buddha.
10. The uncle comes out of the house to call the fisherman.
11. Farmers wish to get oxen; merchants wish to get horses.
12. The king wishes to abandon his palace.
13. Men take baskets and go to the forest to collect fruits for their
14. The farmer wanders in the forest to cut grass for his oxen.
15. Men wish to live in houses in the city with their sons.
16. Having stood on the rock, the child sees flowers on the trees.
17. Having received a garment from the teacher the doctor is pleased.
18. The hunter calls a friend to drag a goat from the forest.
19. The sailor calls merchants to cross the sea.
20. Having risen from the seat the good man wishes to speak with the
21. Children wish to get down to the water and bathe.
22. The minister mounts the horse to go to the forest to shoot deer.
23. The boy wishes to cook rice for his uncle's friends.
24. Jackals leave the forest to enter the farmers' fields.
25. Men wish to see objects with their eyes by the light of the sun.
09 | 10 |
32 | Appendix
Workbook: 01-05 | 06-10 |
11-15 | 16-20 |
21-25 | 26-32
32 | Phụ đính
"The Pāli Primer" is a publication of the Vipassana
Research Institute (http://www.vri.dhamma.org).
It aims to provide an elementary understanding of the Pali language.
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last updated: 06-08-2004