1. The Past Participle
Past participles are mostly formed by adding -ta to the root with or
without the connecting vowel -i-
||- pac + i + ta
||- bhās + i + ta
||- yāc + i + ta
||- dis' + i + ta
||- pūj + i + ta
||- gam + ta
||- han + ta
|nayati / neti
||- nī + ta
The past participle is also formed from some roots by adding -na.
||- chid + na
||- bhid + na
||- ni + sad + na
||- tṛ + na
2. Past participles have a passive meaning when they are formed from
transitive verbs, but from intransitive verbs they have an active meaning.
They are declined in the three genders, as -a ending nouns in the
masculine and the neuter, and -ā ending nouns in the feminine.
Pacati, chindati, nimanteti are transitive verbs. Therefore:
= the rice that is cooked (passive meaning)
chinnaṃ paṇṇaṃ = the leaf that is cut (passive meaning)
nimantitā kaññā = the girl who is invited (passive meaning)
But gacchati, patati, tiṭṭhati are intransitive verbs. Therefore:
= the man has gone (active meaning)
manusso gato (hoti)
pupphaṃ patitaṃ (hoti) = the flower has fallen (active meaning)
kaññā ṭhitā (hoti) = the girl has stood (active meaning)
3. The following are some past participles
||- kasita, kaṭṭha
||- pucchita, puṭṭha
||- pacita, pakka
||- āmasita, āmaṭṭha
||- laddha, labhita
||- bhuñjita, bhutta
||- dhovita, dhota
||- diṭṭha, (dṛś)
4. Examples in sentence formation
The Buddha who entered the monastery was seen by the lay devotees.
Upāsakehi vihāraṃ paviṭṭho Buddho diṭṭho hoti
Te Buddhena desitaṃ dhammaṃ suṇiṃsu
They listened to the dhamma preached by the Buddha.
Dārikāya āhaṭāni bhaṇḍāni ammā piṭakesu pakkhipi
The mother put in baskets the goods brought by the girl.
Vānijo patitassa rukkhassa sākhāyo chindi
The merchant cut the branches of the fallen tree.
Mayaṃ udakena āsittehi pupphehi Buddhaṃ pūjema
We may worship the Buddha with flowers sprinkled with water.
Kassakena kasite khette sūkaro sayati
A pig sleeps in the field ploughed by the farmer.
5. Translate into English:
1. Ammāya mañjūsāyaṃ pakkhittaṃ suvaṇṇaṃ dārikā na gaṇhi.
2. Dhotāni vatthāni gahetvā bhariyā udakamhā uttari.
3. Kassakehi uyyāne ropitesu rukkhesu phalāni bhaviṃsu.
4. Buddhā devehi ca narehi ca pūjitā honti.
5. Udakena pūritaṃ pattaṃ gahetvā vanitā gehaṃ āgatā hoti.
6. Adhammena (unrighteously) dīpaṃ pālentena bhūpālena pīḷitā manussā
7. Pakkaṃ (ripe) phalaṃ tuṇḍena gahetvā uḍḍentaṃ suvaṃ ahaṃ apassiṃ.
8. Udento suriyo brāhmaṇena namassito hoti.
9. Ammāya jālitaṃ dīpaṃ ādaya putto vihāraṃ paviṭṭho hoti.
10. Vanitāya dussena chādite āsane samaṇo nisīditvā sannipatitāya
parisāya dhammaṃ desesi.
11. Kassakena khettaṃ ānītā goṇā tiṇaṃ khādantā āhiṇḍiṃsu.
12. Vāṇijā mañjūsāsu ṭhapitāni dussāni na vikkiṇiṃsu
13. Sace tvaṃ saccaṃ jāneyyāsi mā puttaṃ akkosa.
14. Nāvāya nikkhantā narā samuddaṃ taritvā dīpaṃ pāpuṇitvā bhariyāhi
saddhiṃ kathentā modanti.
15. Magge ṭhite vāṇijassa sakaṭe ahaṃ kaññāya ānītāni bhaṇḍāni ṭhapesiṃ.
16. Dhammena laddhena dhanena putte posetvā jīvantā manussā devatāhi
17. Sāvakehi ca upāsakehi ca parivārito Buddho vihārassa chāyāya nisinno
18. Ammāya pāpehi nivāritā puttā sappurisā hutvā dhammaṃ suṇanti.
19. Kassake pīḷentā corā paṇḍitena anusāsitā sappurisā bhavituṃ
vāyamantā upāsakehi saddhiṃ uyyāne rukkhe ropenti.
20. Vanitā puttāya paṭiyāditamhā bhattamhā khudāya pīḷitassa yācakassa
thokaṃ (little) datvā pānīyaṃ ca dadi / adāsi.
21. Sabhāyaṃ nisīditvā dārikāya gāyitaṃ gītaṃ sutvā kaññāyo modiṃsu.
22. Amaccena nimantitā purisā sālāyaṃ nisīdituṃ asakkontā (unable)
23. Kassakehi khettesu vuttehi bījehi thokaṃ (little) sakuṇā khādiṃsu.
24. Kumārehi rukkhamūle nilīyitvā sayanto sappo diṭṭho hoti.
25. Vāṇijena dīpamhā āhaṭāni vatthāni kiṇituṃ vanitāyo icchanti.
26. Sace bhūpālo dhammena manusse rakkheyya te kammāni katvā dārake
posentā sukhaṃ vindeyyuṃ.
27. Puttena yācitā ammā mittānaṃ odanaṃ paṭiyādesi.
28. Amaccena puṭṭhaṃ pañhaṃ adhigantuṃ asakkonto corānaṃ dūto cintetuṃ
29. Corehi guhāyaṃ nilīyitāni bhaṇḍāni passitvā vānarā tāni (them) ādāya
30. Ahaṃ pariyesitaṃ dhammaṃ adhigantvā modāmi.
6. Translate into Pāli:
1. The man who came to the assembly could not speak with the
2. The child ran to the shop taking the money given by the mother.
3. The king is seated in the chariot drawn by horses.
4. Having discussed with the wise man the farmers sent a messenger to
5. The children went out of the open door.
6. The women who got down to the water washed clothes and bathed.
7. Buddhas and their disciples are worshipped by gods and men.
8. The merchant sold the clothes sewn by women.
9. I did not take the flowers and fruits brought by the girl from the
10. Being chased by the dog, the girls quickly (sīghaṃ) ran home.
11. The teacher having seen the evil deed done by the girl advised her.
12. We did not light the lamps prepared by the women.
13. You do not drag the branches cut by the farmer from the mountain.
14. Without getting the pay for the work done, the woman is angry.
15. Do not ask for fruits from the boy sitting on the branch.
16. The woman who is scolded by the brahmin cries, seated at the door.
17. The girl being called by the mother ran home to eat rice.
18. The men who tried to cut the creepers started pulling the branches.
19. The farmer who makes a living righteously, ploughing his fields
experiences happiness with his wife and children.
20. Deities who have departed from the world of gods and are born in the
human world rejoice listening to the dhamma preached by the Buddha.
21. The thieves who were instructed by the monk became good men.
22. There were no fruits on the trees planted by the farmer.
23. Bitten by the dog the girl ran home and cried.
24. The minister is not known to the doctor.
25. Seated under the tree the girls played with sand.
26. Sons, do not drink liquor.
27. Mothers prevent children from evil.
28. I gave water to the dog oppressed with thirst.
29. Seeing the hunter coming we hid among the trees.
30. We prepared alms with faith and gave to the monks.