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pabbajjā: lit. 'the going forth', or more fully stated, 'the going forth from home to the homeless life' of a monk (agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjā), consists in severing all family and social ties to live the pure life of a monk, in order to realize the goal of final deliverance pointed out by the Enlightened One. Thus, p. has become the name for admission as a Sāmaṇera, or novice, i.e. as a candidate for the Order of Bhikkhus, or monks.

See Going Fonh, by Sumana Samaṇera (WHEEL 27/28) - Ordination in Theravāda Buddhism (WHEEL 56).

paccavekkhana-ñāṇa: 'retrospective knowledge', refers to the recollected mental image obtained in concentration, or to any inner experience just passed, as for instance, any absorption (jhāna q.v.), or any supermundane path, or fruition of the path, etc. (s. ariya-puggala). As it is said: "At the end of fruitional consciousness, consciousness sinks into the subconscious stream of existence (bhavaṅga-sota, q.v.). Then, breaking off the stream of existence, mental advertence (manodvārāvajjana) arises at the mind-door, for the purpose of retrospecting the (just passed) path-moment. Now, as soon as this stage has passed, 7 moments of impulsive consciousness (javana-citta), one after the other, flash up while retrospecting the path. After they again have sunk into the subconscious stream, there arise, for the purpose of retrospecting the fruition of the path the moments of advertence and impulsion, during whose arising the monk is retrospecting the path, retrospecting the fruition, retrospecting the abandoned defilements, retrospecting the still remaining defilements, retrospecting Nibbāna as object .... 'This blessing have I attained ' .... 'This and that defilement still remains in me' .... 'This object have I beheld in my mind', etc." (Vis.M. XXII).

paccavekkhana-suddhi: 'purity of reflection', is a name for wise consideration in using the 4 requisites allowed to the monk, i.e. robes, food, dwelling, and medicine; s. sīla (4).

paccaya: 'condition', is something on which something else, the so-called 'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be. Manifold are the ways in which one thing, or one occurrence, may be the condition for some other thing, or occurrence. In the Paṭṭhāna, the last book of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka (comprising 6 large vols. in the Siamese edition), these 24 modes of conditionality are enumerated and explained, and then applied to all conceivable mental and physical phenomena and occurrences, and thus their conditioned nature is demonstrated.

The first two volumes of the Paṭṭhāna have been translated into English by the Venerable U Nārada (Mūla Paṭṭhāna Sayadaw) of Burma, under the title Conditional Relations (Published by the Pāḷi Text Society, London 1969, 1981). For a synopsis of this work, see Guide VII.

The 24 modes of conditionality are:

1. Root condition : hetu paccaya

2. Object " : ārammaṇa paccaya

3. Predominance " : adhipati paccaya

4. Priority " : anantara paccaya

5. Contiguity " : samanantara paccaya

6. Co-nascence " : sahajāta paccaya

7. Mutuality " : aññamañña paccaya

8. Support " : nissaya paccaya

9. Decisive Support " : upanissaya paccaya

10. Pre-nascene " : purejāta paccaya

11. Post-nascene " : pacchājāta paccaya

12. Repitition " : āsevana paccaya

13. Kamma " : kamma paccaya

14. Kamma-result " : vipāka paccaya

15. Nutriment " : āhāra paccaya

16. Faculty " : indriya paccaya

17. Jhāna " : jhāna paccaya

18. Path " : magga paccaya

19. Associaton " : sampayutta paccaya

20. Dissociation " : vippayutta paccaya

21. Presence " : atthi paccaya

22. Absence " : natthi paccaya

23. Disappearance " : vigata paccaya

24. Non-disappearance " : avigata paccaya


(1) Root-condition (hetu-paccaya) is that condition that resembles the root of a tree. Just as a tree rests on its root, and remains alive only as long as its root is not destroyed, similarly all kammically wholesome and unwholesome mental states are entirely dependent on the simultaneity and presence of their respective roots, i.e, of greed (lobha), hate (dosa), delusion (moha), or greedlessness (alobha), hatelessness (adosa), undeludedness (amoha). For the definition of these 6 roots, s. mūla.

"The roots are a condition by way of root for the (mental) phenomena associated with a root, and for the corporeal phenomena produced thereby (e.g. for bodily expression)" (Patth).

(2) Object-condition (ārammaṇa-paccaya) is called something which, as object, forms the condition for consciousness and mental phenomena. Thus, the physical object of sight consisting in colour and light ('light-wave'), is the necessary condition and the sine qua non for the arising of eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññāṇa), etc.; sound ('sound wave') for ear-consciousness (sotā-viññāṇa), etc.; further, any object arising in the mind is the condition for mind-consciousness (mano-viññāṇa). The mind-object may be anything whatever, corporeal or mental, past, present or future, real or imaginary.

(3) Predominance-condition (adhipati-paccaya) is the term for 4 things, on the preponderance and predominance of which are dependent the mental phenomena associated with them, namely: concentrated intention (chanda, q.v.), energy (viriya, q.v.), consciousness (citta) and investigation (vīmaṃsā). In one and the same state of consciousness, however, only one of these 4 phenomena can be predominant at a time. "Whenever such phenomena as consciousness and mental concomitants are arising by giving preponderance to one of these 4 things, then this phenomenon is for the other phenomena a condition by way of predominance" (Patth.). Cf. iddhi-pāda.

(4-5) Proximity and contiguity (or immediacy)-condition (anantara and samanantara-paccaya) - both being identical - refer to any state of consciousness and mental phenomena associated with them, which are the conditions for the immediately following stage in the process of consciousness. For example, in the visual process, eye-consciousness is for the immediately following mindelement - performing the function of receiving the visible object - a condition by way of contiguity; and so is this mind-element for the next following mind-consciousness element, performing the function of investigating the object, etc. Cf. viññāṇa-kicca.

(6) Co-nascence condjtion (sahajāta-paccaya), i.e. condition by way of simultaneous arising, is a phenomenon that for another one forms, a condition in such a way that, simultaneously with its arising, also the other thing must arise. Thus, for instance, in one and the same moment each of the 4 mental groups (feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness) is for the 3 other groups a condition by way of co-nascence or co-arising; or again each of the 4 physical elements (solid, liquid, heat, motion) is such a condition for the other 3 elements. Only at the moment of conception in the mother's womb does corporeality (physical base of mind) serve for the 4 mental groups as a condition by way of conascence.

(7) Condition by way of mutuality (aññāmañña-paccaya). All the just mentioned associated and co-nascent mental phenomena, as well as the 4 physical elements, are, of course, at the same time also conditioned by way of mutuality, "just like three sticks propped up one by another." The 4 mental groups are one for another a condition by way of mutuality. So also are the 4 elements, and also mentality and corporeality at the moment of conception.

(8) Support-condition (nissaya-paccaya). This condition refers either to a pre-nascent (s. 10) or co-nascent (s. 6) phenomenon which is aiding other phenomena in the manner of a foundation or base, just as the trees have the earth as their foundation, or as the oil-painting rests on the canvas. In this way, the 5 sense-organs and the physical base of the mind are for the corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent, i.e. previously arisen, condition by way of support. Further all co-nascent (s. 6) phenomena are mutually (s. 7) conditioned by each other by way of support.

(9) Decisive-support (or inducement) condition (upanissaya-paccaya) is threefold, namely (a) by way of object (ārammaṇūpanissaya-paccaya), (b) by way of proximity (anantarūpanissaya), (c) natural decisive support (pakatupanissaya). These conditions act as strong inducement or cogent reason.

(a) Anything past, present or future, corporeal or mental, real or imaginary, may, as object of our thinking, become a decisive support, or strong inducement, to moral, immoral or kammically neutral states of mind. Evil things, by wrong thinking about them, become an inducement to immoral life; by right thinking, an inducement to moral life. But good things may be an inducement not only to similarly good things, but also to bad things, such as self-conceit, vanity, envy, etc.

(b;) is identical with proximity condition (No. 4).

(c) Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's own mind, or the influence of climate, food, etc., on one's body and mind, may act as natural and decisive support-conditions. Faith may be a direct and natural inducement to charity, virtue to mental training, etc.; greed to theft, hate to murder; unsuitable food and climate to ill-health; friends to spiritual progress or deterioration.

(10) Pre-nascence-condition (purejāta-paccaya) refers to something previously arisen, which forms a base for something arising later on. For example, the 5 physical sense-organs and the physical base of mind, having already arisen at the time of birth, form the condition for the consciousness arising later, and for the mental phenomena associated therewith.

(11) Post-nascence-condition (pacchā-jāta-paccaya) refers to consciousness and the phenomena therewith associated, because they are - just as is the feeling of hunger- a necessary condition for the preservation of this already arisen body.

(12) Repetition-condition (āsevana-paccaya) refers to the kammical consciousness, in which each time the preceding impulsive moments (javana-citta, q.v.) are for all the succeeding ones a condition by way of repetition and frequency, just as in learning by heart, through constant repetition, the later recitation becomes gradually easier and easier.

(13) Kamma-condition (kamma-paccaya). The pre-natal kamma (i.e kamma-volitions, kamma-cetanā, in a previous birth) is the generating condition (cause) of the 5 sense-organs, the fivefold sense-consciousness, and the other kamma-produced mental and corporeal phenomena in a later birth. - Kammical volition is also a condition by way of kamma for the co-nascent mental phenomena associated therewith, but these phenomena are in no way kamma-results.

(14) Kamma-result-condition (vipāka-paccaya). The kamma-resultant 5 kinds of sense-consciousness are a condition by way of kamma-result for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.

(15) Nutriment-condition (āhāra-paccaya). For the 4 nutriments, s. āhāra.

(16) Faculty-condition (indriya-paccaya). This condition applies to 20 faculties (indriya, q.v.), leaving out No. 7 and 8 from the 22 faculties. Of these 20 faculties, the 5 physical sense-organs (1 - 5), in their capacity as faculties, form a condition only for uncorporeal phenomena (eye-consciousness etc.); physical vitality (6) and all the remaining faculties, for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.

(17) Jhāna-condition (jhāna-paccaya) is a name for the 7 so-called jhāna-factors, as these form a condition to the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena, to wit: (1) thought-conception (vitakka), (2) discursive thinking (vicāra), (3) interest (pīti), (4) joy (sukha), (5) sadness (domanassa), (6) indifference (upekkhā), (7) concentration (samādhi). (For definition s. Pāḷi terms. )

1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of greedy consciousness (s. Tab. I. 22-25); 1, 2, 5, 7 in hateful consciousness (ib. 30, 31); 1, 2, 6, 7 in the classes of deluded consciousness (ib. 32, 33).

This condition does not only apply to jhāna alone, but also to the general intensifying ('absorbing') impact of these 7 factors.

(18) Path-condition (magga-paccaya) refers to the 12 path-factors, as these are for the kammically wholesome and unwholesome mental phenomena associated with them, a way of escape from this or that mental constitution, namely: (1) knowledge (paññā = sammādiṭṭhi, right understanding), (2) (right or wrong) thought-conception (vitakka), (3) right speech (sammā-vācā), (4) right bodily action (sammā-kammanta), (5) right livelihood (sammā-ājīva), (6) (right or wrong) energy (viriya), (7) (right or wrong) mindfulness (sati), (8) (right or wrong) concentration (samādhi), (9) wrong views (micchādiṭṭhi), (10) wrong speech (micchā-vācā), (11) wrong bodily action (micchā-kammanta), (12) wrong livelihood (micchā-ājīva). Cf. magga.

(19) Association-condition (sampayutta-paccaya) refers to the co-nascent (s. 6) and mutually (s. 7) conditioned 4 mental groups (khandha), "as they aid each other by their being associated, by having a common physical base, a common object, and by their arising and disappearing simultaneously" (Patth. Com.).

(20) Dissociation-condition (vippayutta-paccaya) refers to such phenomena as aid other phenomena by not baving the same physical base (eye, etc.) and objects. Thus corporeal phenomena are for mental phenomena, and conversely, a condition by way of dissociation, whether co-nascent or not.

(2l) Presence-condition (atthi-paccaya) refers to a phenomenon - being pre-nascent or co-nascent - which through its presence is a condition for other phenomena. This condition applies to the conditions Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11.

(22) Absence-condition (natthi-paccaya) refers to consciousness, etc., which has just passed, and which thus forms the necessary condition for the immediately following stage of consciousness by giving it an opportunity to arise. Cf. No. 4.

(23) Disappearance-condition (vigata-paccaya) is identical with No. 22.

(24) Non-disappearance-condition (avigata-paccaya) is identical with No. 21.

These 24 conditions should be known thoroughly for a detailed understanding of that famous formula of the dependent origination (paṭiccasamuppāda, q.v.). Cf. Fund. III, Guide p. 117 ff. (App.) .

See The Significance of Dependent Origination, by Nyanatiloka (WHEEL 140).

paccaya-sannissita-sīla: 'morality consisting in the wise use of the monk's requisities'; s. sīla (4).

pacceka-bodhi: 'independent enlightenment'; s. the foll. and bodhi.

pacceka-buddha: an 'Independently Enlightened One'; or Separately or Individually (=pacceka) Enlightened One (renderings by 'Silent' or 'Private Buddha' are not very apt). This is a term for an Arahat (s. ariya-puggala) who has realized Nibbāna without having heard the Buddha's doctrine from others. He comprehends the 4 Noble Truths individually (pacceka), independent of any teacher, by his own effort. He has, however, not the capacity to proclaim the Teaching effectively to others, and therefore does not become a 'Teacher of Gods and Men', a Perfect or Universal Buddha (sammā-sambuddha ). - Paccekabuddhas are described as frugal of speech, cherishing solitude. According to tradition, they do not arise while the Teaching of a Perfect Buddha is known; but for achieving their rank after many aeons of effort, they have to utter an aspiration before a Perfect Buddha.

Canonical references are few; Pug. 29 (defin.); A. II, 56; in M. 116, names of many Paccekabuddhas are given; in D. 16 they are said to be worthy of a Thūpa (dagoba); the Treasure-Store Sutta (Nidhikhandha Sutta, Khp.) mentions pacceka-bodhi; the C. Nidd. ascribes to individual Paccekabuddhas the verses of the Rhinoceros Sutta (Khaggavisāna Sutta, Sn.) - See bodhi.

See The Paccekabuddha, by Ria Kloppenborg (WHEEL 305/307).

pacchājāta-paccaya: 'post-nascence-condition', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

pādaka-jjhāna: 'foundation-forming absorption', is an absorption used as a foundation, or starting point, for the higher spiritual powers (abhiññā, q.v.), or for insight (vipassanā, q.v.), leading to the supermundane paths (s. ariya-puggala). The foundation for the former is the 4th absorption; for insight, however, any absorption is suitable. For details, s. samatha-vipassanā. - (App.).

pada-parama: 'one for whom the words are the utmost attainment'. "Whoever, though having learned much, speaking much, knowing many things by heart, and discoursing much, has not penetrated the truth, such a man is called by that name" (Pug. 163).

padhāna: 'effort.' The 4 right efforts (samma-padhāna), forming the 6th stage of the 8-fold Path (i.e. sammā-vāyāma, s. magga) are: (1) the effort to avoid (saṃvara-padhāna), (2) to overcome (pahāna-padhāna), (3) to develop (bhāvanā-padhāna), (4) to maintain (anurakkhaṇa-padhāna), i.e. (1) the effort to avoid unwholesome (akusala) states, such as evil thoughts, etc. (2) to overcome unwholesome states, (3) to develop wholesome (kusala) states, such as the 7 elements of enlightenment (bojjhaṅga, q.v.), (4) to maintain the wholesome states.

"The monk rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, unwholesome things not yet arisen ... to overcome them ... to develop wholesome things not yet arisen ... to maintain them, and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development. And he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives" (A. IV, 13).

(1) "What now, o monks, is the effort to avoid? Perceiving a form, or a sound, or an odour, or a taste, or a bodily or mental impression, the monk neither adheres to the whole nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things might arise, such as greed and sorrow, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses. This is called the effort to avoid.

(2) "What now is the effort to overcome? The monk does not retain any thought of sensual lust, or any other evil, unwholesome states that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them, causes them to disappear. This is called the effort to overcome.

(3) "What now is the effort to develop? The monk develops the factors of enlightenment, bent on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: mindfulness (sati), investigation of the law (dhamma-vicaya), energy (viriya), rapture (pīti), tranquillity (passaddhi), concentraton (samādhi), equanimity (upekkhā). This is called the effort to develop.

(4) "What now is the effort to maintain? The monk keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration, such as the mental image of a skeleton, a corpse infested by worms, a corpse blueblack in colour, a festering corpse, a corpse riddled with holes, a corpse swollen up. This is called the effort to maintain" (A. IV, 14).

padhāniyaṅga: 'elements of effort', are the following 5 qualities: faith, health, sincerity, energy, and wisdom (M. 85, 90; A. V. 53). See pārisuddhipadhāniyaṅga.

pāguññatā: 'proficiency', namely, of mental concomitants (kāya-pāguññatā), and of consciousness (citta-pāguññatā), are 2 mental phenomena associated with all wholesome consciousness. Cf. Tab. II.

pahāna: 'overcoming', abandoning. There are 5 kinds of overcoming: (1) overcoming by repression (vikkhambhana-pahāna), i.e. the temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances (nīvaraṇa, q.v.) during the absorptions, (2) overcoming by the opposite (tadaṅga-pahāna), (3) overcoming by destruction (samuccheda-pahāna), (4) overcoming by tranquillization (paṭipassaddhi-pahāna), (5) overcoming by escape (nissaraṇa-pahāna).

(1) "Among these, 'overcoming by repression' is the pushing back of adverse things, such as the 5 mental hindrances (nīvaraṇa q.v), etc., through this or that mental concentration (samādhi, q.v.), just as a pot thrown into moss-clad water pushes the moss aside....

(2) " 'Overcoming by the opposite' is the overcoming by opposing this or that thing that is to be overcome, by this or that factor of knowledge belonging to insight (vipassanā q.v.), just as a lighted lamp dispels the darkness of the night. In this way, the personality-belief (sakkāyadiṭṭhi, s. diṭṭhi) is overcome by determining the mental and corporeal phenomena ... the view of uncausedness of existence by investigation into the conditions... the idea of eternity by contemplation of impermanency ... the idea of happiness by contemplation of misery....

(3) "If through the knowledge of the noble path (s. ariyapuggala) the fetters and other evil things cannot continue any longer, just like a tree destroyed by lightning, then such an overcoming is called 'overcoming by destruction' " (Vis.M. XXII, 110f.).

(4) When, after the disappearing of the fetters at the entrance into the paths, the fetters, from the moment of fruition (phala) onwards, are forever extinct and stilled, such overcoming is called the 'overcoming by tranquillization'.

(5) "The 'overcoming by escape' is identical with the extinction and Nibbāna" (Pts.M. I. 27). (App.).

pahāna-pariññā ; s. pariññā .

pain, feeling of: s. vedanā.

pakati-sīla: 'natural or genuine morality', is distinct from those outward rules of conduct laid down for either laymen or monks. Those later are the so-called 'prescribed morality' (paṇṇattisīla). Cf. sīla.

pakati-upanissaya: 'direct inducement'; s. paccaya.

palibodha: 'obstacles', is the term for the following things if they obstruct the monk in the strict practice of a subject of meditation: a crowded monastery, travelling, relatives, association with lay folk, gifts, pupils, repairs in the monastery, sickness, study, magical power. The latter, however, may become an obstacle only in developing insight (vipassanā, q.v.). See Vis.M. III, 29ff. - (App.)

paṃsukūlikaṅga: the 'vow to wear only robes made from picked-up rags', is one of the ascetic rules of purification; s. dhutaṅga.

pāṇātipātā veramaṇī: 'abstaining from the killing of living beings', is the first of the 5 moral rules binding upon all Buddhists; s. sikkhāpada.

pañcadvārāvajjana: 'advertence to the 5-sense-doors'; s. viññāṇa-kicca.

pañca-sīla: s. sikkhāpada.

pañca-vokāra-bhava: 'five-group existence', is a name for existence in the sensuous sphere (kāmāvacara ), or in the fine-material sphere (rūpāvacara, s. avacara), since all the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) are found there. In the immaterial sphere (arūpāvacara, s. avacara), however, only the 4 mental groups are found, and in the world of unconscious beings (asaññā-satta, q.v.) only the one corporeality group. Cf eka-vokāra-bhava and catu-pañca-vokāra-bhava; further s. avacara. - (App.: vokāra).

pañhā-byākaraṇa: 'answering questions'. "There are, o monks, 4 ways of answering questions: there are questions requiring a direct answer; questions requiring an explanation; questions to be answered by counter-questions; questions to be rejected (as wrongly put)." See D. 33; A. III, 68; A. IV, 42.

paññā: 'understanding, knowledge, wisdom, insight', comprises a very wide field. The specific Buddhist knowledge or wisdom, however, as part of the Noble Eightfold Path (magga, q.v.) to deliverance, is insight (vipassanā, q.v.), i.e. that intuitive knowledge which brings about the 4 stages of holiness and the realization of Nibbāna (s. ariyapuggala), and which consists in the penetration of the impermanency (anicca, q.v.), misery (dukkha, s. sacca) and impersonality (anattā) of all forms of existence. Further details, s. under tilakkhaṇa.

With regard to the condition of its arising one distinguishes 3 kinds of knowledge knowledge based on thinking (cintā-mayā-paññā), knowledge based on learning (suta-mayā-paññā), knowledge based on mental development (bhāvanā-mayā-paññā) (D. 33).

" 'Based on thinking' is that knowledge which one has accquired through one's own thinking, without having learnt it from others. 'Based on learning' is that knowledge which one has heard from others and thus acquired through learning. 'Based on mental development' is that knowledge which one has acquired through mental development in this or that way, and which has reached the stage of full concentration" (appanā, q.v.) (Vis.M. XIV).

Wisdom is one of the 5 mental faculties (s. bala), one of the 3 kinds of training (sikkhā, q.v.), and one of the perfections (s. pāramī) For further details, s. vipassanā, and the detailed exposition in Vis.M. XIV, 1-32.

paṇṇatti-sīla: 'prescribed morality', is a name for the disciplinary rules of the monk or layman prescribed by the Buddha, as distinguished from natural or genuine morality (pakati-sīla; s. sīla).

paññā-vimutti: 'deliverance through wisdom' (or understanding'), signifies, according to Com. to A.V, 142, the wisdom associated with the fruition of holiness (Arahatta-phala). In Pug. 31 and similarly in M. 70, it is said: "A monk may not have reached in his own person the 8 liberations (=jhāna, q.v.), but through his wisdom the cankers have come to extinction in him. Such a person is called wisdom-liberated" (paññā-vimutta). - Com. to Pug.: "He may be one of five persons: either a practiser of bare insight (sukkha-vipassako, q.v.), or one who has attained  to Holiness after rising from one of the absorptions." See S. XII, 7().

The term is often linked with ceto-vimutti (q.v.), 'deliverance of mind'.

papañca: (Sanskrit prapañca): In doctrinal usage, it signifies the expansion, differentiation, 'diffuseness' or 'manifoldness' of the world; and it may also refer to the 'phenomenal world' in general, and to the mental attitude of 'worldliness'. In A. IV, 173, it is said: "As far as the field of sixfold sense-impression extends, so far reaches the world of diffuseness (or the phenomenal world; papañcassa gati); as far as the world of diffuseness extends, so far extends the field of sixfold sense-impression. Through the complete fading away and cessation of the field of sixfold sense-impression, there comes about the cessation and the coming-to-rest of the world of diffuseness (papañca-nirodho papañca-vupasamo)." The opposite term nippapañca is a name for Nibbāna (S. LIII), in the sense of 'freedom from samsaric diffuseness'. - Dhp. 254: "Mankind delights in the diffuseness of the world, the Perfect Ones are free from such diffuseness" (papañcābhiratā pajā, nippapañca tathāgatā). - The 8th of the 'thoughts of a great man' (mahā-purisa-vitakka; A. VIII, 30) has: "This Dhamma is for one who delights in non-diffuseness (the unworldly, Nibbāna); it is not for him who delights in worldliness (papañca)." - For the psychological sense of 'differentiation', see M. 18 (Madhupiṇḍika Sutta): "Whatever man conceives (vitakketi) that he differentiates (papañceti); and what he differentiates, by reason thereof ideas and considerations of differentiation (Papañca-saññā-saṅkhā) arise in him." On this text and the term papañca, see Dr. Kurt Schmidt in German Buddhist Writers (WHEEL 74/75) p. 61ff. - See D. 21 (Sakka's Quest; WHEEL 10, p.

In the commentaries, we often find a threefold classification taṇhā-, diṭṭhi-, māna-papañca, which probably means the world's diffuseness created hy craving, false views and conceit. - See M. 123; A. IV, 173; A. VI, 14, Sn. 530, 874, 916.

Ñāṇananda Bhikkhu, in Concept and Reality: An Essay on Papañca and Papañca-saññā-saṅkhā (Kandy 1971, Buddhist Publication Society), suggests that the term refers to man's "tendency towards proliferation in the realm of concepts" and proposes a rendering by "conceptual proliferation," which appears convincing in psychological context, e.g. in two of the texts quoted above, A. IV, 173 and M. 18. - The threefold classification of papañca, by way of craving, false views and conceit, is explained by the author as three aspects, or instances, of the foremost of delusive conceptualisations, the ego-concept.

parāmāsa: 'adherence', attachment, 'misapprehension', is according to Vis.M. XXII a name for wrong views; in that sense it occurs in Dhs. 1174 ff. - See sīlabbata-parāmāsa.

paramattha (-sacca, -vacana, -desanā): 'truth (or term, exposition) that is true in the highest (or ultimate) sense', as contrasted with the 'conventional truth' (vohāra-sacca), which is also called 'commonly accepted truth' (sammuti-sacca; in Skr: samvrti-satya). The Buddha, in explaining his doctrine, sometimes used conventional language and sometimes the philosophical mode of expression which is in accordance whith undeluded insight into reality. In that ultimate sense, existence is a mere process of physical and mental phenomena within which, or beyond which, no real ego-entity nor any abiding substance can ever be found. Thus, whenever the Suttas speak of man, woman or person, or of the rebirth of a being, this must not be taken as being valid in the ultimate sense, but as a mere conventional mode of speech (vohāra-vacana).

It is one of the main characteristics of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka, in distinction from most of the Sutta Piṭaka, that it does not employ conventional language, but deals only with ultimates, or realities in the highest sense (paramattha-dhammā). But also in the Sutta Piṭaka there are many expositions in terms of ultimate language (paramattha-desanā), namely, wherever these texts deal with the groups (khandha), elements (dhātu) or sense-bases (āyatana), and their components; and wherever the 3 characteristics (ti-lakkhaṇa, q.v.) are applied. The majority of Sutta texts, however, use the conventional language, as appropriate in a practical or ethical context, because it "would not be right to say that 'the groups' (khandha) feel shame, etc."

It should be noted, however, that also statements of the Buddha couched in conventional language, are called 'truth' (vohāra-sacca), being correct on their own level, which does not contradict the fact that such statements ultimately refer to impermanent and impersonal processes.

The two truths - ultimate and conventional - appear in that form only in the commentaries, but are implied in a Sutta-distinction of 'explicit (or direct) meaning' (nītattha, q.v.) and 'implicit meaning (to be inferred)' (neyyattha). Further, the Buddha repeatedly mentioned his reservations when using conventional speech, e.g. in D. 9: "These are merely names, expressions, turns of speech, designations in common use in the world, which the Perfect Qne (Tathāgata) uses without misapprehending them." See also S. I. 25.

The term paramattha, in the sense here used, occurs in the first para. of the Kathāvatthu, a work of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka (s. Guide, p. 62). (App: vohāra).

The commentarial discussions on these truths (Com. to D. 9 and M. 5) have not yet been translated in full. On these see K N. Jayatilleke, Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge (London, 1963), pp. 361ff.

In Mahāyana, the Mādhyamika school has given a prominent place to the teaching of the two truths.

paramī = pāramitā: 'perfection'. Ten qualities leading to Buddhahood: (1) perfection in giving (or liberality; dāna-pāramī), (2) morality (sīla-pāramī), (3) renunciation (nekkhamma-pāramī), (4) wisdom (paññā-pāramī), (5) energy (viriya-pāramī), (6) patience (or forbearance; khanti-pāramī), (7) truthfulness (sacca-pāramī), (8) resolution (adhiṭṭhāna-pāramī), (9) loving-kindness (mettā-pāramī) (10) equanimity (upekkhā-pāramī).

These qualities were developed and brought to maturity by the Bodhisatta in his past existences, and his way of practising them is illustrated in many of the Birth Stories (Jātaka), of which, however, only the verses are regarded as canonical. Apart from the latter, the 10 pāramī are mentioned in only two other canonical works which are probably apocryphal, the Buddhavaṃsa (in the Story of Sumedha) and the Cariya-piṭaka. A long and methodical exposition of the pāramī is given in the concluding Miscellaneous Section (pakiṇṇakakathā) of the Com. to Cariya-piṭaka (untranslated).

In Vis.M. IX it is said that through developing the 4 sublime states (loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy, equanimity; s. brahma-vihāra), one may reach these 10 perfections, namely:

"As the Great Beings (mahā-satta; a synonym often found in the Mahāyana scriptures for Bodhisatta (q.v.), i.e. 'Enlightenment Being or Being destined for Buddhahood) are concerned about the welfare of living beings, not tolerating the suffering of beings, wishing long duration to the higher states of happiness of beings, and being impartial and just to all beings, therefore (1) they give alms (dāna, q.v.) to all beings so that they may be happy, without Investigating whether they are worthy or not. (2) By avoiding to do them any harm, they observe morality (sīla q.v.). (3) In order to bring morality to perfection, they train themselves in renunciation (nekkhamma). (4) In order to understand clearly what is beneficial and injurious to beings, they purify their wisdom (paññā). (5) For the sake of the welfare and happiness of others they constantly exert their energy (viriya). (6) Though having become heroes through utmost energy, they are nevertheless full of forbearance (khanti ) toward s the manifold failings of beings . (7) Once they have promised to give or do something, they do not break their promise ('truthfulness'; sacca). (8) With unshakable resolution (adhiṭṭhāna) they work for the weal and welfare of beings. (9) With unshakable kindness (mettā) they are helpful to all. (10) By reason of their equanimity (upekkhā) they do not expect anything in return" (Vis.M. IX. 24).

In the Mahāyana scriptures, where the pāramī occupy a much more prominent place, a partly differing list of six is given: liberality, morality, patience, energy, meditation. and wisdom.

Literature: Ten Jataka Stories (illustrating the 10 pāramī), by I. B. Horner (London 1957, Luzac & Co.); Buddhavaṃsa & Cariya-piṭaka. tr. by I. B. Horner (Minor Anthologies III, Sacred Books of the Buddhists. PTS). - Nārada Thera, The Buddha & His Teachings, Ch. 41; pāramī (BPS) - The treatise on the perfections from the Com. to Cariya-piṭaka has been translated in The Discourse on the All-Embracing Net of Views (Brahmajala Sutta, with Com.). tr. by Bhikkhu Bodhi  (BPS) .

Paranimmita-vasavatti-deva: 'heavenly beings with power over the productions of others', constitute a class of heavenly beings in the sensuous sphere (kāma-loka). Māra (q.v.) is said to be their ruler. Cf. loka, deva I.

parassa ceto-pariya-ñāṇa: 'penetration of the mind of others', is one of the higher powers (abhiññā, q.v.).

paricchinnākāsa-kasiṇa: 'limited-space kasiṇa' = space kasiṇa; s. kasiṇa. (App.).

parihāna-dhamma: 'liable to decline'. "Now, someone reaches the attainments (absorptions: jhāna, q.v.) of the fine-material or immaterial sphere (s. avacara). But he does not reach them according to his wish, and not without trouble and exertion; and not according to his wish with regard to place, object and duration, does he enter them, or rise therefrom. Therefore it is well possible that such a monk, through negligence, may lose these attainments. Such a person is said to be liable to decline" (Pug. 5).

parikamma: 'preparatory-moment': s. javana.

parikamma-nimitta: 'preparatory image'; s. nimitta, kasiṇa.

parikamma-samādhi: 'preparatory concentration', is the initial and still undeveloped concentration of mind; s. samādhi.

Parinibbāna: 'full Nibbāna', is a synonym for Nibbāna; this term, therefore, does not refer exclusively to the extinction of the 5 groups of existence at the death of the Holy One, though often applied to it. Cf. Nibbāna.

pariññā : 'full understanding', full comprehension. There are 3 kinds of mundane f.u. (lokiya-pariññā), namely: full understanding of the known (ñāta-pariññā), f.u. as investigating (tīraṇa-pariññā), and f.u. as overcoming (pahāna-pariññā) In Vis.M. XX, 3 it is said:

"Full understanding of the known is the knowledge consisting in the discernment of the specific characteristics of such and such phenomena, as: 'Corporeality has the characteristic of being oppressed; feeling has the characteristic of being felt, etc.'

"Full understanding by investigating is that insight-wisdom (vipassanā-paññā; s. vipassanā), which has the 3 general characteristics (impermanence, suffering, not-self) as its objects, and which arises when attributing a general characteristic to (physical and mental) phenomena, as for instance: 'Corporeality is impermanent, feeling is impermanent, etc.'

"Full understanding by overcorning is that insight-wisdom which has the above mentioned general characteristics as its objects, and arises after overcoming the idea of permanence, etc." - (App.).

pārisuddhipadhāniyaṅga: the 4 'elements of the effort for purity', are: effort for purity of morality (sīla-parisuddhi-padhāniyaṅga), for purity of mind (citta), of view (diṭṭhi), of deliverance (vimutti). Cf. A. IV, 194. - Another 9 factors are enumerated in D. 34, namely the 7 'stages of purification (s. visuddhi) and the effort for purity of (higher) knowledge (vijjā-p.-p.) and of deliverance (vimutti-p.-p.).

pārisuddhi-sīla: 'morality consisting in purity', is fourfold: restraint with regard to the monks' Disciplinary Code, sense restraint, purity of livelihood, morality with regard to the monks' 4 requisites; for details, s. sīla.

Parittābha and Paritta-subha are 2 classes of heavenly beings of the fine-material sphere; s. deva (II).

pariyatti : 'learning the doctrine', the 'wording of the doctrine'. In the 'progress of the disciple' (q.v.), 3 stages may be distinguished: theory, practice, realization, i.e. (1) learning the wording of the doctrine (pariyatti ), (2) practising it (paṭipatti), (3) penetrating it (paṭivedha) and realising its goal. (App.).

pasāda-rūpa: 'sensitive corporeality', is a name for the 5 physical sense-organs responding to sense-stimuli. Cf. āyatana.

passaddhi-sambojjhaṅga: 'tranquillity, as factor of enlightenment', consists in tranquillity of mental factors (kāya-passaddhi) and tranquillity of consciousness (citta-passaddhi). Cf. bojjhaṅga; further Tab. II.

patched-up robes, the practice of wearing: is one of the ascetic rules of purification (dhutaṅga, q.v.).

path and not-path, the knowledge and vision regarding: s. visuddhi (V).

paṭhavī-dhātu: 'earth-element'. or 'solid element'. It is cognizable through the sensations of pressure, touch, cold, heat. pain, etc. - About the 4 elements. s. dhātu, khandha (I. A.).

paṭhavī-kasiṇa: 'earth-kasiṇa' (s. kasiṇa).

path-condition: magga-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

path-knowledge, the 4 kinds of: s. visuddhi (VII).

path-result (fruition): phala (q.v.).

paṭibhāga-nimitta: s. nimitta, kasiṇa, samādhi.

paṭibhāna-paṭisambhidā: the 'analytical knowledge of ready wit': s. paṭisambhidā.

paṭiccasamuppāda: 'dependent origination', is the doctrine of the conditionality of all physical and psychical phenomena, a doctrine which, together with that of impersonality (anattāq.v.), forms the indispensable condition for the real understanding and realization of the teaching of the Buddha. It shows the conditionality and dependent nature of that uninterrupted flux of manifold physical and psychical phenomena of existence conventionally called the ego, or man, or animal, etc.

Whereas the doctrine of impersonality, or anattā, proceeds analytically, by splitting existence up into the ultimate constituent parts, into mere empty, unsubstantial phenomena or elements, the doctrine of dependent origination, on the other hand, proceeds synthetically, by showing that all these phenomena are, in some way or other, conditionally related with each other. In fact, the entire Abhidhamma Piṭaka, as a whole, treats really of nothing but just these two doctrines: phenomenality - implying impersonality and conditionality of all existence. The former or analytical method is applied in Dhammasaṅganī, the first book of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka; the latter or synthetical method, in Paṭṭhāna, the last book of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka. For a synopsis of these two works, s. Guide I and VII.

Though this subject has been very frequently treated by Western authors, by far most of them have completely misunderstood the true meaning and purpose of the doctrine of dependent origination, and even the 12 terms themselves have often been rendered wrongly.

The formula of dependent origination runs as follows:

1. Avijiā-paccayā saṅkhārā: "Through ignorance are conditioned the saṅkh

āras," i.e. the rebirth-producing volitions (cetanā), or 'kamma-formations' .

2. Saṅkhāra-paccayā viññāṇaṃ: "Through the kamma-formations (in the past life) is conditioned consciousness (in the present life)."

3. Viññāṇa-paccayā nāma-rūpaṃ: "Through consciousness are conditioned the mental and physical phenomena (nāma-rūpa)," i.e. that which makes up our so-called individual existence.

4. Nāma-rūpa-paccayā saḷāyatanaṃ: "Through the mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the 6 bases," i.e. the 5 physical sense-organs, and consciousness as the sixth.

5. Saḷāyatana-paccayā phasso: "Through the six bases is conditioned the (sensorial mental) impression."

6. Phassa-paccayā vedanā: "Through the impression is conditioned feeling."

7. Vedanā-paccayā taṇhā: "Through feeling is conditioned craving."

8. Taṇhā-paccayā upādānaṃ: "Through craving is conditioned clinging."

9. Upādāna-paccayā bhavo: "Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming," consisting in the active and the passive life process, i.e. the rebirth-producing kamma-process (kamma-bhava) and, as its result, the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava).

10. Bhava-paccayā jāti: "Through the (rebirth-producing kamma-) process of becoming is conditioned rebirth."

11. Jāti-paccayā jarā maraṇaṃ, etc.: "Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death (sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair). Thus arises this whole mass of suffering again in the future."


The following diagram shows the relationship of dependence between three successive lives:



1 Ignorance (avijjā)

2 Kamma-formations


Kamma-Process (kammabhava)

5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10








3 Consciousness (viññāṇa)

4 Mind & Matter


5 Six Bases (āyatana)

6 Impression (phassa)

7 Feeling (vedanā)



Rebirth-Process (upapattibhava)

5 results: 3-7

8 Craving (taṇhā)

10 Process of Becoming (bhava)

Kamma-Process (kammabhava)

5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10



11 Rebirth (jāti)

12 Old Age and Death (jarā-maraṇa)

Rebirth-Process (upapattibhava)

5 results: 3-7


Before taking up the study of the following exposition, it is suggested that the reader first goes thoroughly through the article on the 24 conditions (s. paccaya). For a thorough understanding of the paṭiccasamuppāda he should know the main modes of conditioning, as decisive support, co-nascence, pre-nascence, etc.

For a closer study of the subject should be consulted: Vis.M. XVII; Fund. III; Guide (Ch. VII and Appendix); Dependent Origination, by Piyadassi Thera (WHEEL 15); The Significance of Dependent Origination (WHEEL 140).


(1.) "Through ignorance are conditioned the kamma-formations" (avijjā-paccayā saṅkhārā), i.e. all wholesome and unwholesome actions (kamma, q.v.) of body, speech and mind, are conditioned through ignorance. By 'kamma-formations' are meant kammically wholesome and unwholesome volitions (cetanā), or volitional activities, in short kamma (q.v., and Fund. II).

In view of the many misconceptions current in the West, it is necessary to repeat here that kamma (q.v.), as a technical term, never signifies anything but moral or immoral action, i.e. the above mentioned volitional activities, or kamma-formations, as either causing results in the present life or being the causes of future destiny and rebirth. Thus kamma, as a philosophical term, never means the result of action, as often wrongly conceived by Western authors.

Now, in what way are the kamma-formations conditioned through ignorance? As concerns the unwholesome kammaformations associated with greed, hate or delusion (lobha, dosa, moha), these are always and in all circumstances, conditioned through the simultaneous ignorance inseparably associated therewith. Thus, ignorance is for the unwholesome kamma-formations a condition by way of conascence (sahajāta-paccaya), association (sampayutta-paccaya), presence (atthi-paccaya), etc. Ignorance further may be for them a condition by way of decisive support or inducement (upanissaya-paccaya), if, for instance, ignorance coupled with greed induces a man to commit evil deeds, such as killing, stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse, etc. In these cases, therefore, ignorance is a 'natural decisive suppport' or 'direct inducement' (pakati-upanissaya-paccaya). It also may become an indirect inducement, by way of object (ārammaṇūpanissaya-paccaya) of our thinking. This takes place, if, for example, someone remembers a former state of ignorance combined with sensual enjoyment, and in doing so kammically unwholesome states spring up, such as sensual desire, grief, etc.

For the wholesome (kusala) kamma-formations, ignorance can only be a condition by way of decisive support (upanissaya), never by way of co-nascence (sahajāta), etc., since wholesome consciousness at that very moment, of course, cannot be associated with any unwholesome phenomenon, such as ignorance. Ignorance is a 'natural decisive support' or 'direct inducement' (pakatupanissaya), for example, if, induced by ignorance and vanity, one exerts oneself to attain the absorptions, and thus finally, through perseverance, reaches these wholesome states of mind. Ignorance may also be for wholesome kamma-formations a 'decisive support' or 'inducement by way of object' (ārammaṇūpanissaya), if, for example, one refleets on ignorance as the root of all misery in the world, and thus finally attains insight and entrance into one of the 4 supermundane paths of holiness.

For ignorance, s. avijjā; for kamma-formations, s. saṅkhāra.


(2.) "Through the kamma-formations is conditioned consciousness" (Saṅkhāra-paccayā viññāṇaṃ). This proposition teaches that the wholesome and unwholesome kamma-formations are the causes of future rebirth in an appropriate sphere (gati). The kamma-formations of the previous life condition the budding in a new mother's womb of a fresh psycho-physical aggregation of the 5 groups of existence (s. khandha), which here are represented by consciousness (viññāṇa). All such kamma-resultant (vipāka) consciousness, however, such as eye-consciousness (seeing), etc., as well as all the mental phenomena associated therewith (feeling, etc.), are kammically neutral. It should be understood that already from the very first moment of conception in the mother's womb, this kamma resultant eonsciousness of the embryonic being is functioning.

Against Dr. Paul Dahlke's misconception of the paṭiccasamuppāda as "one single kammical moment of personal experience," and of the 'simultaneity' of all the 12 links of this formula, I should like to state here distinctly that the interpretation of the p. given here as comprising 3 successive lives not only agrees with all the different schools of Buddhism and all the ancient commentaries, but also is fully identical with the explanations given already in the canonical Suttas . Thus, for example, it is said verbatim in Nidāna-saṃyutta (S. XII, 51): "Once ignorance (1) and clinging (9) are extinguished, neither kammically meritorious, nor demeritorious, nor imperturbable kamma-formations (2=10) are produced, and thus no consciousness (3=11) will spring up again in a new mother's womb." And further: "For, if consciousness were not to appear in the mother's womb, would in that case mentality and corporeality (4) arise?" Cf. above diagram.

The purpose of the Buddha in teaching the p. was to show to suffering mankind how, depending on ignorance and delusion, this present existence and suffering has come about, and how through extinction of ignorance, and of the craving and clinging conditioned thereby, no more rebirth will follow, and thus the standstill of the process of existence will have been realized and therewith the extinction of all suffering.


(3.) "Through consciousness are conditioned corporeality and mentality" (viññāṇa-paccayā nāma-rūpani). This proposition implies that without consciousness there ean be no mental and physical process of existence. By mentality (nāma) is here to be understood the kamma-resultant (vipāka) mental phenomena, such as feeling (vedanā), perception (saññā), volition (cetanā: non-kammical volition is here meant), consciousness-impression (phassa), advertence (manasikāra) (M. 9; S. XII, 2). For the basic 7 mental phenomena inseparably associated with every state of consciousness, s. nāma. By corporeality (rūpa) is meant the 4 physical elements (s. dhātu) and the corporeality dependent thereon (s. khandha, I).

Mentality is always conditioned through consciousness; i.e. consciousness (viññāṇa) is for mentality (nāma) a condition by way of conascence (sahajāta), mutuality (aññamañña), association (sampayutta), etc., since the 4 mental groups at all times form an inseparable unit.

Consciousness (viññāṇa) is for corporeality (rūpa) a condition by way of co-nascence only at the moment of conception, thereafter a condition by way of post-nascence (pacchājāta-paccaya; paccaya 11) and nutriment (āhāra), i.e. as a support. Just as the repeatedly arising hunger is a condition and support for the pre-arisen body, so is the conseiousness arising afterwards a condition and support for the maintenance of this pre-arisen body.


(4.) "Through mentality and corporeality are conditioned the 6 bases (nāma-rūpa paccayā salāyatanam). The 6 bases are a name for the 5 physical sense-organs and, as 6th, the mind-base (manāyatana), i.e. consciousness.

Mentality (nāma; s. 3) is for the 5 physical bases (āyatana), or sense-organs, a condition by way of post-nascence. Cf. end of 3.

Mentality (nāma), i.e. feeling. etc., is for the 6th base, or consciousness - as being always inseparably associated therewith a condition by way of co-nascencc. etc.

Corporeality (rūpa), here the 4 elements, are for the 5 physical bases (āyatana), or sense-organs, a condition by way of support (nissaya).

Corporeality (rūpa), here the 5 physical sense-organs, are for the 6th base (āyatana), i.e. consciousness, a condition by way of support and pre-nascence (purejāta-paccaya).


(5.) "Through the 6 bases is conditioned the (sensorial and mental) impression" (Saḷāyatana-paccayā phasso), for without the 5 physical bases, or sense-organs, there can be no sense-impressions; and without the 6th base, or consciousness, there can be no mental impression.

Thus, the 5 physical bases, eye, etc., are for the corresponding 5 sense-impressions (visual impression, etc.) a condition by way of support (nissaya) and pre-nascence (purejāta), whereas the 6th, the mind-base (consciousness), is for the mental impression a condition by way of co-nascence, association, mutuality, etc.


(6.) "Through impression is conditioned feeling" (Phassa-paccayā vedanā), i.e. the sensorial and the mental impressions are for the feeling associated therewith a condition by way of co-nascence, association, mutuality, etc.


(7.) "Through feeling is conditioned craving" (Vedanā-paccayā taṇhā). Any (kamma-resultant) feeling, whether agreeable, disagreeable or neutral, bodily or mental, past or expected, may become for craving a condition of decisive support by way of object (ārammanūpanissaya). Even physically and mentally painful feeling may, through the desire to be released therefrom, become for craving a condition of decisive support by way of object (ārammanupanissaya).


(8.) "Through craving is conditioned clinging" (Taṇhā-paccayā upādānaṃ). 'Clinging' is explained as an intensified form of craving. It is of 4 kinds: (1) clinging to sensuality, (2) to erroneous views, (3) to rules and ritual, (4) to personality-belief. Sensuous craving is to (1) a condition of natural decisive support (pakatupanissaya). For (2-4), craving is a condition by way of co-nascence, mutuality, root (hetu), etc. It also may be a condition of natural decisive support. For example, through craving for heavenly rebirth, etc. people often may be induced to cling to certain rules and rituals, with the hope of reaching thereby the object of their desires.


(9.) "Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming" (Upādāna-paccayā bhavo), i.e. the wholesome and unwholesome active kamma-process of becoming (kamma-bhava), as well as the kamma-resultant (vipāka) passive process, the so-called 'rebirth-process' (upapatti-bhava). The kamma-process (kammabhava) comprises the 5 kammical causes: ignorance, kamma-formations, craving, clinging, kamma-process (s. 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, of the diagram); the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava) comprises the 5 kamma-results (s. 3-7 of the diagram).

The kamma-process is here, correctly speaking, a collective name for generative karmic volition (kamma-cetanā) and all the mental phenomena associated therewith, whilst the 2nd link (kamma-formations) designates only karmic volition (s. āyūhana). Both, however, i.e. the 2nd and 10th proposition, practically state one and the same thing, namely, that kamma is the cause of rebirth, as we shall see under 10.

Clinging (upādāna) may be an inducement of decisive support (upanissaya) to many kinds of wholesome and unwholesome kamma. Sensuous clinging (kāmūpādāna), i.e. clinging to sensuous objects, for example, may be a direct inducement to murder, theft, unlawful intercourse with the other sex, evil words and thoughts, etc. Clinging to rules and ritual (sīlabbatūpādāna) may lead to self-complacency, fanaticism, cruelty, etc. Clinging is also for the evil kamma associated therewith, a condition by way of co-nascence, association, etc.


(10.) "Through the process of becoming is conditioned rebirth" (Bhava-paccayā jāti), i.e. through the wholesome and unwholesome kamma-process (kamma-bhava) is conditioned the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava). The 2nd and 10th propositions, as already pointed out, practically teach one and the same thing, namely, that kamma is the cause of rebirth; in other words, that the kammical volition (cetanā) is the seed out of which springs the new life, just as from the mango-seed is generated the new mango-tree.

Hence, the 5 kammical causes (ignorance, etc.) of the past birth are the condition for the kamma-results of the present birth; and the 5 kammical causes of the present birth are the condition for the 5 kamma-results of the next birth (s. diagram). As it is said in Vis.M. XVII:

"Five causes were there in the past,

Five fruits we find in present life;

Five causes do we now produce,

Five fruits we reap in future life."


Now, just as in this process of continually changing mental and bodily phenomena, nothing can be found that would pass from one moment to the next moment, so also there is no enduring entity, ego, or personality, within this process of existence that would transmigrate from one life to the next (s. nāma-rūpa, anattā, paṭisandhi, khandha). "No being and no living soul passed from the former life to this life, and yet this present embryo could not have entered into existence without the preceding causes" (Vis.M. XVII). "Many things may serve to illustrate this fact, as for example the echo, the light of a lamp, the impression of a seal, or the image produced by a mirror" (ib.).

"Whosoever is in the dark with regard to the conditionally arisen things, and does not understand that kamma originates from ignorance, etc., he thinks that it must be his ego that knows or does not know, acts and causes to act, and that arises at rebirth. Or he thinks that the atoms, or a creator, with the help of this embryonic process, must have formed this body, or that it is the ego endowed with faculties that has impressions, feels, desires, clings, continues and enters again into existence in a new birth. Or he thinks that all beings have been born through fate, or fortuitously" (Vis.M. XVII).

Now, on hearing that Buddhism teaches that everything whatever in the world is determined by conditions some might come to the conclusion that Buddhism teaches some sort of fatalism, and that man has no free will, or that will is not free.

The problem 'whether man has a free will' does not exist for, the Buddhist, since he knows that, apart from these everchanging mental and physical phenomena, no such entity as 'man' can be found, and that 'man' is merely a name not relating to any reality. And the question, 'whether will is free', must be rejected for the reason that 'will', or volition, is a mental phenomenon flashing forth only for a moment, and that as such it had not any existence at the preceding moment. For of a thing which is not, or is not yet, one cannot, properly speaking, ask whether it is free or unfree. The only admissible question would be whether the arising of 'will' is independent of conditions, or whether it is conditioned. But the same question would equally apply also to all the other mental phenomena, as well as to all physical phenomena, in other words: to everything and every occurrence whatever. And the answer would be: whether will arises, or whether feeling arises, or whether any other mental or any physical phenomenon arises, the arising of anything whatsoever is dependent on conditions, and without conditions nothing ever can arise or enter into existence.

According to Buddhism, everything mental or physical happens in accordance with laws and conditions; and if it were otherwise, chaos and blind chance would reign. But such a thing is impossible and contradicts all laws of thinking. Cf. Fund. III (end). 

(11.) "Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death" (jātipaccayā jarā-maraṇaṃ). Without birth there can be no old age and death, no suffering and misery. Thus rebirth is to old age and death, etc. a condition by way of decisive support (upanissaya).

The Buddha has said (D. 15): "Profound, Ānanda. is this dependent origination, and profound does it appear. It is through not understanding, not penetrating, this law that this world resembles a tangled ball of thread, a bird's nest, a thicket of sedge or reed, and that man does not escape from the lower states of existence, from the course of woe and perdition, suffering from the round of rebirth." And further (M. 28): 'Whoso understands the dependent origination understands the Dhamma; and whoso understands the Dhamma understands the dependent origination."

patience, or forbearance (khanti ): one of the 10 perfections (pāramī, q.v.).

paṭigha: - 1. In an ethical sense, it means: 'repugnance', grudge, resentment, anger, and is a synonym of byāpāda, 'ill-will' (s. nīvaraṇa) and dosa, 'hate' (s. mūla). It is one of the proclivities (anusaya, q.v.).

2. '(Sense-) reaction'. Applied to five-sense cognition, p. occurs in the following contexts:

(a) as paṭigha-saññā, 'perception of sense-reaction', said to be absent in the immaterial absorptions (s. jhāna 5). Alternative renderings: resistance-perception, reflex-perception;

(b) as paṭigha-samphassa, '(mental) impression caused by 5fold sensorial reaction' (D. 15); s. phassa;

(c) as Sappaṭigha-rūpa, 'reacting corporeality', and appaṭigha, 'not reacting', which is an Abhidhammic classification of corporeality, occurring in Dhs. 659, 1050. Sappaṭigha are called the physical sense-organs as reacting (or responding) to sense stimuli; and also the physical sense-objects as impinging (or making an impact) on the sense-organs. All other corporeality is appaṭigha, non-reacting and non-impinging. These 2 terms have been variously rendered as resistant and not, responding and not, with and without impact.

pāṭihāriya: 'miracle', marvel. Three marvels are ascribed to the Buddha: the marvel of magic (iddhi-p.), the marvel of mind-reading (ādesanā-p.) and the marvel of instruction (anusāsanī-p.). In D. 11, the Buddha says that he sees danger in the first two and therefore abhors them. In A. III, 61, the 'marvel of instruction' is called the one 'more noble and sublime'. For iddhi-pāṭihāriya, see D. 25. See also yamakapāṭihāriya.

paṭikkūla-saññā: s. kāyagatā-sati.

Pātimokkha: 'Disciplinary Code', is the name of the code of monk's rules, which on all full-moon and new moon days is recited before the assembled community of fully ordained monks (bhikkhu).

See The Pātimokkha, Romanized Pāḷi text and transl. by Ñāṇamoli Thera (Bangkok 1966, Mahāmakut Buddhist Bookshop).

Pātimokkha-saṃvara-sīla: 'morality consisting in restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code' (Pātimokkha, s. prec.). For details, s. sīla.

paṭinissaggānupassanāā: 'contemplation on abandonment', is one of the 18 kinds of insight (vipassanā q.v.). Further cf. the 16th exercise of anapana-sati (q.v.).

paṭipadā: 1. 'Road', 'path'; for instance in dukkhanirodhagāminipaṭipadā, 'the road leading to the extinction of suffering' (= 4th Noble Truth); majjhima-paṭipadā, 'the Middle Way'.

2. 'Progress' (see also the foll. article). There are 4 modes of progress to deliverance: (1) painful progress with slow comprehension (dukkhā paṭipadā dandhābhiññā), (2) painful progress with quick comprehension, (3) pleasant progress with slow comprehension, (4) pleasant progress with quick comprehension. In A. IV, 162 it is said:

(1) "Some person possesses by nature excessive greed, excessive hate, excessive delusion, and thereby he often feels pain and sorrow; and also the 5 mental faculties, as faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom (s. indriya 15-19) are dull in him; and by reason thereof he reaches only slowly the immediacy (ānantariya, q.v) to the cessation of all cankers.

(2) Some person possesses by nature excessive greed, etc., but the 5 mental faculties are sharp in him and by reason thereof he reaches quickly the immediacy to the cessation of all cankers ....

(3) "Some person possesses by nature no excessive greed, etc., but the 5 mental faculties are dull in him, and by reason thereof he reaches slowly the immediacy to the cessation of all cankers ....

(4) 'Some person possessess by nature no excessive greed, etc., and the mental faculties are sharp in him, and by reason thereof he reaches quickly the immediacy to the cessation of all cankers ....

See A. IV, 162, 163, 166-169; Dhs. 176ff; Aṭṭhasālinī Tr. I, 243; 11, 291, 317.

paṭipadā-ñāṇadassana-visuddhi: 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' forms the 6th stage of purification (visuddhi, q.v.).

patipannaka: 'path-attainer', is he who had reached one of the 4 supermundane paths of holiness (s. ariya-puggala). - (App.)

paṭipatti: practice, or 'pursuance' of the teaching, as distinguished from the mere theoretical knowledge of its wording (pariyatti , q.v.).

paṭipassaddhi-pahāna: 'overcoming (of defilements) by tranquillization' (s. pahāna).

paṭisambhidā: 'analytical knowledge' or 'discrimination', is of 4 kinds: analytical knowledge of the true meaning (attha-paṭisambhidā), of the law (dhamma-paṭisambhidā), of language (nirutti-paṭisambhidā), of ready wit (paṭibhāna-paṭisambhidā).

As an alternative rendering of the fourth term (paṭibhāna), Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli proposes: perspicuity (in expression and knowledge).


1. The analytical knowledge of the meaning (attha-p.) is the knowledge with regard to the sense.

2. The analytical knowledge of the law (dhamma-p.) is the knowledge with regard to the law.

3. The analytical knowledge of language (nirutti-p.) is the knowledge of the language with regard to those former 2 things.

4. The analytical knowledge of ready-wit (paṭibhāna-p.) is the knowledge about the (former 3) kinds of knowledge" (Vibh. XV).


"(1) attha (Sanskrit artha, √ar, to reach; result, meaning, purpose, true substance) designates, in short, the fruit (phala) of a cause (hetu); for since the fruit of a cause results from adhering to the cause, and is reached and effected thereby, therefore it is called result (attha). In particular, however, 5 things are considered as attha, namely: everything dependent on conditions, Nibbāna, the meaning of words, kamma-result, and functional consciousness. When anyone reflects on that meaning any knowledge of his, falling within the category concerned with meaning (or result), is the 'analytical knowledge' of meaning.

"(2) dhamma (Sanskrit dharma, dhar, to bear; bearer, condition, law, phenomenon, thing) is, in short, a name for condition (paccaya).... In particular, however, 5 things are considered as dhamma, namely: every cause (hetu) producing a result, the noble path, the spoken word, the kammically wholesome, the kammically unwholesome. When anyone reflects on that law, any knowledge of his, falling within the category concerned with law (or cause), is the 'analytical knowledge' of the law.

In Vibh. it is further said: 'The knowledge of suffering is the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning (attha-paṭisambhidā), the knowledge of its origin is the 'analytical knowledge' of the law (dhamma-paṭisambhidā). The knowledge of the cause is the 'analytical knowledge' of the law (dhamma-paṭisambhidā), the knowledge of the result of the cause is the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning (attha-paṭisambhidā)... That the monk knows the law, the sunas etc. this is called the 'analytical knowledge' of the law (dhamma-paṭisambhidā); if however, he understands the meaning of this or that speech... it is called the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning (attha-paṭisambhidā).'

(3) " 'The knowledge of the language concerning those things' means: the language corresponding to reality, and the unfailing mode of expression concerning the true meaning and the law.

(4) " 'Knowledge about the kinds of knowledges' is that knowledge which has all knowledges as object and considers them. Or, the analytical knowledge of ready wit (paṭibhāna-paṭisambhidā) means the knowledge of the above mentioned 3 kinds of knowledge, in all their details, with their objects, functions, etc." (Vis.M. XIV).

On the 7 qualities leading to the attainment of the 4 'analytical knowledge' , s. A. VII, 37 - See Vis.M. XIV, 21ff; Vibh. XV; Pts.M. Paṭisambhidā Kathā.

paṭisandhi: lit. 'reunion, relinking', i.e. rebirth, is one of the 14 functions of consciousness (viññāṇa-kicca, q.v.). It is a kamma-resultant type of consciousness and arises at the moment of conception i.e. with the forming of new life in the mother's womb. Immediately afterwards it sinks into the subconscious stream of existence (bhavaṅgasota, q.v.), and conditioned thereby ever and ever again corresponding states of subconsciousness arise. Thus it is really rebirth-consciousness that determines the latent character of a person.

"Neither has this (rebirth-) consciousness transmigrated from the previous existence to this present existence, nor did it arise without such conditions, as kamma, kamma-formations, propensity, object, etc. That this consciousness has not come from the previous existence to this present existence, yet that it has come into existence by means of conditions included in the previous existence, such as kamma (q.v.), etc., this fact may be illustrated by various things, such as the echo, the light of a lamp, the impression of a seal, or the image produced by a mirror. For just as the resounding of the echo is conditioned by a sound, etc., and nowhere a transmigration of sound has taken place, just so it is with this consciousness. Further it is said: 'In this continuous process, no sameness and no otherness can be found.' For if there were full identity (between the different stages), then also milk never could turn into curd. And if there were a complete otherness, then curd could never come from milk.... If in a continuity of existence any kamma-result takes place, then this kamma-result neither belongs to any other being, nor does it come from any other (kamma), because absolute sameness and otherness are excluded here" (Vis, XVII 164ff).

In Mil. it is said:

"Now, Venerable Nāgasena, the one who is reborn, is he the same as the one who has died, or is he another?"

"Neither the same, nor another" (na ca so na ca añño).

"Give me an example."

"What do you think, o King: are you now, as a grown-up person, the same that you had been as a little, young and tender babe? "

"No, Venerable Sir. Another person was the little, young and tender babe, but quite a different person am I now as a grown-up man . " . . .

"... Is perhaps in the first watch of the night one lamp burning, another one in the middle watch, and again another one in the last watch?"

"No, Venerable Sir. The light during the whole night depends on one and the same lamp.''

"Just so, o King, is the chain of phenomena linked together. One phenomenon arises, another vanishes, yet all are linked together, one after the other, without interruption. In this way one reaches the final state of consciousnes neither as the same person. nor as another person.''

According to the nature of their rebirth consciousness, beings divide into the following 3 groups:

1. ahetu-paṭisandhika: a 'being reborn without rootconditions', is a being whose consciousness at the moment of rebirth was not accompanied by any of the 3 noble rootconditions, viz. greedlessness, hatelessness, undeludedness (s. mūla), i.e. selflessness, kindness, intelligence. Such beings are found in the 4 lower worlds (apāya, q.v.), in which case the function of rebirth is exercised by the class of consciousness listed in Tab. I as No. 56. But if such beings are born in the sensuous sphere as humans, they will be crippled, blind, deaf, mentally deficient, etc. (Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. I, No. 41)

2. dvihetu (or duhetu)-paṭisandhika: a 'being reborn with only 2 (noble) root-conditions', i.e. greedlessness and hatelessness. (Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. I, Nos. 44, 45, 48 or 49.)

3. tihetu-paṭisandhika: a 'being reborn with 3 (noble) rootconditions'. Such a being can be found only among men. (Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. 1, Nos. 42, 43, 46, or 47) and higher heavenly beings.

On these 3 types of rebirth, See Aṭṭhasālinī Tr. 11, 354 - 379. (App.: paṭisandhika).

In the Suttas , the terms for rebirth are chiefly punabbhava (q.v.), 'renewed existence', and abhinibbatti 'arising'; or both combined as punabbhavābhinibbatti. - (App.: paṭisandhi).

Literature Vis.M. XVII, 133f, 164f, 189f, 289f; Vis.M. XIX, 22f. - Kamma and Rebirth, by Nyanatiloka Thera (WHEEL 9). - The Case for Rebirth, by Francis Story (WHEEL 12/13). - Survival and Kamma in Buddhist Perspective, by K. N. Jayatilleke (WHEEL 141/143). - Rebirth Explained, by V. F. Guṇaratana (WHEEL 167/169).

paṭisaṅkhāna-bala and bhāvanā-bala: 'power of reflection', and 'power of mental development'. About these 2 powers it is said in A. II, 10:

"What, o monks, is the power of reflection? If, o monks, someone thinks thus: 'Bad conduct in deeds, words and thoughts verily bears bad fruits both in this life, as well as in the next life', and in consequence of this consideration, he abandons bad conduct in deeds, words and thoughts, follows good conduct, and keeps his heart pure, this, o monks, is the power of reflection.

"What, o monks, is the power of mental development? If, o monks, a monk develops the factors of enlightenment (bojjhaṅga, q.v.), bent on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: mindfulness, investigating of the law, energy, rapture, tranquillity, concentration, and equanimity, this, o monks, is the power of mental development."

paṭisaṅkhānupassanā-ñāṇa: 'knowledge consisting in reflective contemplation"; is one of the 9 knowledges constituting the 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' (paṭipadā-ñāṇadassanavisuddhi; s. visuddhi VI), and one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (mahāvipassanā; s. vipassanā).

paṭivedha: 'penetration', signifies the realization of the truth of the Dhamma, as distinguished from the mere acquisition of its wording (pariyatti ), or the practice (paṭipatti) of it, in other words, realization as distinguished from theory and practice. Cf. pariyatti .

patta-pindikaṅga: the 'exercise of the bowl-eater', is one of the 13 ascetic purification-exercises (dhutaṅga, q.v.), consisting in the vow of using only the alms-bowl for eating, and the rejection of any other vessel.

patti-dāna: lit. 'giving of the acquired', i.e. 'transference of merit.' Though in the older texts very seldom mentioned (e.g. A VII, 50), it is, however, a widespread custom in all Buddhist countries. It is presumed that moral merit, especially that acquired through giving alms, can be transferred to others, apparently for the reason that one's own good deeds may become to others, especially to departed relatives and friends reborn in the ghost realm, an inducement to a happy and morally wholesome state of mind. Transference of merit is advocated (though without mentioning the term patti-dāna) in the Tirokudda Sutta (Khp. and Petavatthu) and its Com. (Khp. Tr.). It is one of the ten 'bases of meritorious action' (puññakiriyavatthu, q.v.), called there pattānuppadāna. (App.).

See 'The Doctrine of Reversible Merit by F. L. Woodward. Buddhist Review (London), Vol. I (1914), p. 38.

penetration s. paṭivedha, pariyatti . - For the power of penetrating (vipphāra) knowledge and concentration, s. iddhi. - For morality combined with penetration (nibbedha), s. hāna-bhāgiya-sīla, etc. - For penetration (pariya) of the mind of others, s. abhiññā.

perfections, the 10: pāramī (q.v.).

perfect one, the: Tathāgata (q.v.).

performance and avoidance: cāritta-vāritta (q.v.).

permanency, idea of: s. vipallāsa.

personality: s. sakkāya. For personality-belief, s. sakkāya-diṭṭhi, diṭṭhi, attā, satta, puggala, vipallāsa.

perversions, the 4: vipallāsa (q.v.).

peta (Sanskrit preta): lit. 'departed spirit', ghost; s. loka.

petti-visaya: 'ghost realm'; s. loka.

phala: lit. 'fruit'. - 1. result, effect (often together with hetu, cause ); 2. benefit (e.g. in Sāmañña-phala Sutta, 'The Results, or Benefits, of Recluseship'; D. 2).

As 'path-result', or 'fruition', it donotes those moments of supermundane consciousness which flash forth immediately after the moment of path-consciousness (s. ariya-puggala) and which, till the attainment of the next higher path, may during the practice of insight (vipassanā, q.v.) still recur innumerable times. If thus repeated, they are called the 'attainment of fruition (phalasamāpatti), which is explained in detail in Vis.M. XXIII.

phassa (fr. phusati, to touch): 'sense-impression', contact. The term samphassa is used in compounds, e.g. in the following: '"T'here are 6 classes of sense-impression: visual impression (cakkhu-samphassa), impressions of hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily (tactile) impression and mental impression" (M. 9). A twofold division occurs in D. 15: paṭigha (q.v.) -samphassa, impression by sensorial reaction', and adhivacana-samphassa, verbal (or conceptual, i.e. mental) impression'.

Phassa does not signify physical impact, but is one of the 7 constant mental concomitants of consciousness (cetasika) and belongs to the group of mental formations (saṅkhāra-kkhandha). In lists of both these categories it is generally mentioned first (e.g. Dhs. 1: M. 9), due to its fundamental position in the cognitive process In M. 18 it is thus defined: "Dependent on the eye and the forms, eye-consciousness arises; the coming-together of the three is sense-impression" (similarly stated in the case of the other 5 senses, including mind). In the dependent origination, it is conditioned by the six sense-bases and is a conditioning factor of feeling (s. paṭiccasamuppāda 5, 6). Its relation to mind-and-body (nāma-rūpa) is described in D. 15, and its influence on feeling and wrong views, in D. 1 (at the end). - It is one of the 4 nutriments (āhāra, q.v.), and the first factor in the pentad of sense-impression (phassa-pañcamaka), together with feeling, perception, volition and consciousness (see Abh. St., p. 47ff ).

Being a key function in the mind's contact with the world of objects and being a potential source of defilements, sense-impression is an important subject for reflective insight contemplation as succinctly formulated in many verses of the Sn.: 736/7, 778, 851, 870/72, 923.

picked-up rags, wearing robes made from: s. dhutaṅga.

piṇḍapātikaṅga: The 'practice of going for alms', is one of the 13 ascetic purification-exercises (s. dhutaṅga).

pīta-kasiṇa: 'yellow-kasiṇa', is one of the kasiṇa-exercises; s. kasiṇa.

pīti: rapture, enthusiasm (rendered also by joy, happiness); interest it is one of the mental factors or concomitants (cetasika) and belongs to the group of mental formations (saṅkhāra-kkhandha). As, in Sutta texts, it is often linked in a compound word. with 'gladness' (pāmojja) or 'happiness' (sukha), some Western translations have wrongly taken it as a synonym of these two terms. Pīti, however, is not a feeling or a sensation, and hence does not belong to the feeling-group (vedanā-kkhandha), but may be described psychologically as 'joyful interest'. As such it may be associated with wholesome as well as with unwholesome and neutral states of consciousness.

A high degree of rapture is characteristic of certain stages in meditative concentration, in insight practice (vipassanā) as well as in the first two absorptions (jhāna, q.v.). In the latter it appears as one of the factors of absorption (jhānaṅga; s. jhāna) and is strongest in the 2nd absorption. Five degrees of intensity in meditative rapture are described in Vis.M. IV. 94ff. It is one of the factors of enlightenment (bojjhaṅga, q.v.).

planes of existence, the 3: s. avacara.

pleasantness, idea of: s. vipallāsa, subhanimitta .

pondering: s. vīmaṃsā.

post-nascence: pacchājāta-paccaya, one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

postures, the 4 bodily: iriyāpatha (q.v.).

powers, the 5 spiritual: s. bala. - For the 6 higher p., s. abhiññnā. For the 10 p. of a Buddha, s. dasabala. - For the 4 roads to p., s. Iddhipāda . For magical p., s. iddhi.

practice: For theory, practice and realization, s. pariyatti .

predominance and pre-nascence: adhipati, purejāta, are 2 of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

preparatory concentration (and preparatory image, etc.): s. samādhi, javana.

prescribed moral rules: paṇṇatti-sīla (q.v.).

proclivities: s. anusaya.

produced corporeality: nipphanna-rūpa (q.v.).

productive (or regenerative) kamma; s. kamma.

proficiency (of mental factors and consciousness): pāguññatā (q.v.)

progress: s. paṭipadā, abhabbagamana - p. in morality, etc., s. hānabhāgiya, etc. - Purification by knowledge and vision of path-progress, s. visuddhi (VI). - p. of the disciple, s. foll.

progress of the disciple, Gradual development of the Eightfold Path in the: In many Suttas occurs an identical passage that outlines the gradual course of development in the progress of the disciple. There it is shown how this development takes place gradually, and in conformity with laws, from the very first hearing of the doctrine, and from germinating faith and dim comprehension, up to the final realization of deliverance.

"After hearing the law, he is filled with confidence, and he thinks: 'Full of hindrances is household life, a refuse heap; but the homeless life (of a monk) is like the open air. Not easy is it, when one lives at home, to fulfill in all points the rules of the holy life. How if now I were to cut off hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from home to the homeless life?' And after a short time, having given up his possessions, great or little, having forsaken a circle of relations, small or large, he cuts off hair and beard, puts on the yellow robe, and goes forth from home to the homeless life.

Having thus left the world, he fulfills the rules of the monks. He avoids the killing of living beings and abstains from it; without stick or sword, conscientious, full of sympathy, he is desirous of the welfare of all living beings. He avoids stealing ... avoids unchastity ... avoids lying ... tale-bearing ... harsh language ... vain talk.

"He abstains from destroying vegetal germs and plants; eats only at one time of the day; keeps aloof from dance, song, music and the visiting of shows; rejects floral adornment, perfumes, ointment, as well as any other kind of adornment and embellishment. High and gorgeous beds he does not use. Gold and silver he does not accept ... keeps aloof from buying and selling things ....

"He contents himself with the robe that protects his body, and with the alms-bowl with which he keeps himself alive. Wherever he goes, he is provided with these two things, just as a winged bird in flying carries its wings along with him.

"By fulfilling this noble domain of morality (sīla) he feels in his heart an irreproachable happiness."

In what follows thereafter it is shown how the disciple watches over his 5 senses and his mind, and by this noble restraint of the senses (indriya-saṃvara) feels in his heart an unblemished happiness; how in all his actions he is ever mindful and clearly conscious; and how, being equipped with this lofty morality (sīla), and with this noble restraint of the senses (indriya-saṃvara), and with mindfulness and clear consciousness (sati-sampajañña), he choses a secluded dwelling, and freeing his mind from the 5 hindrances (nīvaraṇa, q.v.) he reaches full concentration (samādhi, q.v.); and how thereafter, by developing insight (vipassanā q.v.) with regard to the impermanency (anicca), misery (dukkha) and impersonality (anattā, q.v.) of all phenomena of existence, he finally realizes deliverance from all cankers and defilements, and thus the assurance arises in him:

"For ever am I liberated,

This is the last time I am born,

No new existence waits for me."

Cf. D.1, 2f; M. 27, 38, 51, 60, 76; A. IV, 198; X, 99: Pug. 239, etc.

proximity: anantara, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

pubbenivāsānussati: 'remembrance of former births', is one of the higher powers (abhiññā, q.v.), and a factor of threefold knowledge (tevijjā, q.v.).

puggala: 'individual', 'person', as well as the synonyms: personality, individuality, being (satta), self (attā), etc., in short all terms designating a personal entity, hence also: I, you, he, man, god, etc., all these, according to Buddhism, are mere names for certain combinations of material and mental processes, and apart from them they have no real existence. They are to be considered as mere 'conventional modes of expression' (vohāra-vacana), and on that level they may be used, and are so used in the Sutta texts, if taken "without misapprehending them" (s. quote from D. 9 under paramattha). With such tacit reservations, the term puggala occurs quite frequently in the Suttas .

In the ultimate sense (paramattha, q.v.), however, there exist only ever-changing physical and mental phenomena, flashing up and dying every moment. - Kath., in its first section, discusses the question whether "in the absolute sense, any personality (puggala) can be found" (s. Guide, pp. 62ff). - See paramattha, anattā.

pūjā: (1) honour, respect, homage, (2) worship, devotional observances, devotional offerings; also offerings to monks.

(1) The Mahā-mangala Sutta (Sn. 259) says that "Honour and respect towards those worthy of it, is conducive to great blessing" (pūjā ca pūjaneyyānaṃ etaṃ maṅgalamuttamaṃ). See Dhp. 195f.

(2) The Buddha did not think much of mere outer worship. "Not thus, Ānanda, is the Tathāgata respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped and honoured in the highest degree. But, Ānanda, whatsoever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, lay man or lay woman, abides by the Teaching, lives uprightly in the Teaching, walks in the way of the Teaching, it is by him that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped and honoured in the highest degree" (D. 16). - "There are two kinds of worship: in a material way (āmisa-pūjā) and through (practice of) the Dhamma (dhamma-pūjā). The worship through (practice of) the Dhamma is the better of the two" (A. II).

punabbhava: lit.: re-becoming; 'renewed existence', is a Sutta term for 'rebirth', which, in later literature mostly is called paṭisandhi (q.v.). The attainment of Sainthood (Arahatta), implying the end of future rebirths, is often expressed in the words: "This is the last birth. Now there is no more a renewed existence!" (natthi dāni punabbhavo) (M. 26; D. 15; Therag. 87, 339; Sn. 502). - The term is often linked with abhinibbatti ('arising').

"But how, o brother, does it come to renewed existence and arising in the future (āyatiṃ punabbhavābhinibbatti)? Because beings, obstructed by ignorance and fettered by craving, find ever fresh delight now here, now there, for this reason there is renewed existence and arising in the future" (M. 43). See also S.XII. 38. Abhinibbatti also stands sometimes alone in signifying 'rebirth', e.g. in A. VI, 61; X, 65.

Cf., in the 2nd Truth, the adj. ponobhavika, 'leading to renewed existence'.

See A. III, 76; Sn. 163, 273, 514, 733; S. VII, 12; X, 3.

puñña: merit, meritorious, is a popular term for kammically wholesome (kusala) action. Opposite terms: apuñña, 'demerit'; pāpa, 'bad', 'evil', The value of meritorious action is often stressed, e.g., in the Treasure Store Sutta (s. Khp. Tr.), Dhp 18, 118, 122. - The Community of Holy Monks (ariya-Saṃgha), the third Refuge (s. ti-saraṇa), is said to be "the incomparable field of merit in the world" (anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassa); s. anussati 3. The Arahats, however, having transcended all life-affirming and rebirth-producing actions, are said to be "beyond merit and demerit"; see Sn. 520, 547, 636, 790. - See foll. 3 articles.

puññābhisaṅkhāra: 'meritorious kamma-formations' of the sensuous and fine-material sphere; s. saṅkhāra I. 1.

puññā-dhārā: 'streams of merit'. It is said that one produces 4 streams of merit by offering the 4 requisites (robes, almsfood, dwelling, medicine) to a monk who has reached the conditionless deliverance of mind; further by being filled with unshakable faith in the Buddha, his doctrine and community of disciples, and by being perfect in morality (A. IV, 51, 52). A. VIII, 39 describes 4 further streams of merit.

puñña-kiriya-vatthu: 'bases of meritorious action'. In the Suttas , 3 are mentioned consisting of giving (liberality; dāna-maya-p.), of morality (sīla-maya-p.) and of mental development (meditation; bhāvanā-maya-p.). See D. 33; It. 60; expl. in A. VIII, 36.

Commentaries have a list of ten (dasa p.) which is very popular in Buddhist countries: (1)-(3) as above, (4) reverence (apaciti), (5) service (veyyāvacca), (6) transference of merit (pattānuppadāna), (7) rejoicing in others' merit (abbhānumodana), (8) expounding the Doctrine (desanā), (9) listening to the Doctrine (savana), (10) straightening one's right views (rectification of views; diṭṭhujukamma). - Expl. in Aṭṭhasālinī Tr. 209ff.

See 'The Advantages of Merit', by Bhikkhu Khantipālo (BODHI   LEAVES B. 38).

pure abodes: Suddhāvāsa  (q.v.).

purejāta-paccaya: 'pre-nascence', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

purification, the 7 stages of; s. visuddhi.

purisindriya: 'Virility'; s. bhāva, khandha.

purity, the elements of the effort for: pārisuddhipadhāniyaṅga (q.v.).

puthujjana: lit.: 'one of the many folk', 'worldling', ordinary man, is any layman or monk who is still possessed of all the 10 fetters (saṃyojana, q.v.) binding to the round of rebirths, and therefore has not yet reached any of the 4 stages of holiness (s. ariya-puggala).

"Whoso is neither freed from the 3 fetters (personality-belief, sceptical doubt, attachment to mere rule and ritual), nor is on the way to lose these 3 things, such a one is called a worlding" (Pug. 9).

According to Com. to M. 9, a 'worlding' may be (1) an outsider (a non-Buddhist) who, if he believed in moral causation, may be said to have right view to that extent; but he has not the 'knowledge conforming to the Truths' (saccānulomika-ñāṇa), as has (2) the 'worldling inside the Buddha's Dispensation' (sāsanika). A worlding who professes Buddhism, may be either a 'blind worldling' (andha-p.) who has neither knowledge of, nor interest in the fundamental teaching (the Truths, groups, etc.); or he is a 'noble worldling' (kalyāṇa-p.), who has such knowledge and earnestly strives to understand and practise the Teaching. - See Aṭṭhasālinī Tr. II, 451 (tr. by 'average man'); Com. to M. 1, D. 1.

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