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tadaṅga-pahāna: 'ovcrcoming by the opposite', is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming (pahāna, q.v.).

tadārammaṇa-citta: 'registering consciousness' (s. Tab. I, 40-49, 56), is the last stage in the complete process of cognition (citta-vīthi) immediately before sinking into the subconscious. It does not occur with the consciousness of the absorptions nor with supermundane consciousness, but only with large or distinct objects of the sensuous sphere. Cf. viññāṇa-kicca.

taints: āsava (q.v.).

talk, low: tiracchāna-kathā (q.v.).

taṇhā: (lit. 'thirst'): 'craving', is the chief root of suffering, and of the ever-continuing cycle of rebirths. "What, o monks, is the origin of suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to ever-fresh rebirth and, bound up with pleasure and lust, now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It is the sensual craving (kāma-taṇhā), the craving for existence (bhava-taṇhā), the craving for non-existence (vibhava-taṇhā)'' (D. 22). T. is the 8th link in the formula of the dependent origination (paṭiccasamuppāda, q.v.). Cf. sacca.

Corresponding to the 6 sense-objects, there are 6 kinds of craving craving for visible objects, for sounds, odours, tastes, bodily impressions, mental impressions (rūpa-, sadda-, gandha-, rasa-, phoṭṭhabba-, dhamma-taṇhā). (M. 9; D. 15)

Corresponding to the 3-fold existence, there are 3 kinds: craving for sensual existence (kāma-taṇhā), for fine-material existence (rūpa-taṇhā), for immaterial existence (arūpa-taṇhā). (D. 33)

There are 18 'thought-channels of craving' (taṇhā-vicarita) induced internally, and 18 induced externally; and as occurring in past, present and future, they total 108; see A. IV, 199; Vibh., Ch. 17 (Khuddakavatthu-vibhaṅga).

According to the dependent origination, craving is conditioned by feeling; on this see D. 22 (section on the 2nd Truth).

Of craving for existence (bhava-taṇhā ) it is said (A. X, 62): "No first beginning of the craving for existence can be perceived, o monks, before which it was not and after which it came to be. But it can he perceived that craving for existence has its specific condition. I say, o monks, that also craving for existence has its condition that feeds it (sāhāraṃ) and is not without it. And what is it? 'Ignorance', one has to reply." - Craving for existence and ignorance are called "the outstanding causes that lead to happy and unhappy destinies (courses of existence)" (s. Vis.M. XVII, 36-42).

The most frequent synonyms of taṇhā are rāga (q.v.) and lobha (s. mūla).

taṇhā-kkhaya: 'extinction of craving', is identical with 'extinction of cankers' (āsavakkhaya) and the attainment of perfect Holiness or Arahatship. Cf. ariya-puggala.

taṇhā-nissita-sīla: 'morality based on craving' (s. nissaya).

Tathāgata: the 'Perfect One', lit. the one who has 'thus gone', or 'thus come', is an epithet of the Buddha used by him when speaking of himself.

To the often asked questions, whether the Tathāgata still exists after death, or not, it is said (e.g. S. XXII, 85, 86) that, in the highest sense (paramattha, q.v.) the Tathāgata cannot, even at lifetime, be discovered, how much less after death, and that neither the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) are to be regarded as the Tathāgata, nor can the Tathāgata be found outside these corporeal and mental phenomena. The meaning intended here is that there exist only these ever-changing corporeal and mental phenomena, arising and vanishing from moment to moment, but no separate entity, no personality.

When the commentaries in this connection explain Tathāgata by 'living being' (satta), they mean to say that here the questioners are using the merely conventional expression, Tathāgata, in the sense of a really existing entity.

Cf. anattā, paramattha, puggala, jīva, satta.

A commentarial treatise on "The Meaning of the Word 'Tathāgata' " is included in The All-Embracing Net of Views (Brahmajāla Sutta), tr. Bhikkhu Bodhi  (BPS).

Tathāgata-bala: the 'ten powers of the Perfect One'; s. dasa-bala.

tathatā: 'Suchness', designates the firmly fixed nature (bhāva) of all things whatever. The only passage in the Canon where the word occurs in this sense, is found in Kath. 186 (s. Guide, p. 83). On the Mahāyana term tathatā, s. Suzuki, Awakening of Faith, p. 53f. (App.).

tatra-majjhattatā: 'equanimity, equipoise, mental balance' (lit., 'remaining here and there in the middle'), is the name for a high ethical quality belonging to the saṅkhāra-kkhandha (s. khandha) and is mostly known by the name upekkhā. In its widest sense it is associated with all pure consciousness (s. Tab. II). "Tatra-majjhattatā  is called the 'keeping in the middle of all things'. It has as charactcristic that it effects the balance of consciousness and mental factors; as nature (function; rasa), that it prevents excessiveness and deficiency, or that it puts an end to partiality; as manifestation, that it keeps the proper middle" (Vis.M. XIV). (App.).

Tāvatiṃsa: 'the Thirty-thrce (Gods)', a class of heavenly beings in the sensuous sphere; s. deva (I).

te-cīvarik'anga: 'practice of the three-rober', is one of the ascetical means for purificaton (dhutaṅga, q.v.).

tejo-dhātu: 'fire-element, heat-element'; s. dhātu.

tejo-kasiṇa: 'fire-kasiṇa', is one of the 10 kasiṇa exercises; s. kasiṇa.

temperature: utu (q.v.). - For corporeality produced by temperature, s. samuṭṭhāna.

tendencies: anusaya (q.v.).

terror, awareness of: one of the insight-knowledges; s. visuddhi VI. 3.

te-vijja: 'one endowed with the threefold (higher) knowledge'. In Brahmanism means 'knower of the 3 Vedas' ( tri-vidyā), in Buddhism means one who has realised 3 kinds of knowledge, to wit: remembrance of former rebirths, the divine eye, extinction of all cankers. For details, s. abhiññā, 4-6. Cf. Tevijjā Sutta, D. 13 (WHEEL 57/58).

Theravāda: 'Doctrine of the Elders', is a name of the oldest form of the Buddha's teachings, handed down to us in the Pāḷi language. According to tradition, its name is derived from the fact of having been fixed by 500 holy Elders of the Order, soon after the death of the Master.

Theravāda is the only one of the old schools of Buddhism that has survived among those which Mahāyānists have called 'Hinayāna'. It is sometimes called Southern Buddhism or Pāḷi Buddhism. It is found today in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Chittagong (East Bengal. ) - Cf. Guide, p. 60. - (App.). thīna-middha: 'sloth and torpor', constitute the 3rd of the 5 hindrances (nīvaraṇa, q.v.). They may or may not, be associated with greedy consciousness (s. Tab. 23. 25, 27, 29 and II).

thinking, wisdom based on: cintāmayapaññā: s. paññā.

ṭhiti-bhāgiya sīla, -samādhi, -paññā: 'static morality, static concentration, static wisdom'; s. hāna-bhāgiya-sīla.

thought, thought-conception: s. vitakka.

thought, Right: sammā-saṅkappa; .s. sacca, magga.

ties, the 4: gantha (q.v.).

ti-hetu-paṭisandhika: s. paṭisandhi.

ti-lakkhaṇa: the '3 charactcristies of existence', or signata, are impermanency (anicca, q.v.), suffcring or misery (dukkha, q.v.; s. sacca, dukkhatā), not-self (anattā, q.v.).

"Whether Perfect Ones appear in the world, or whether Perfect Ones do not appear in the world, it still remains a firm condition, an immutable fact and fixed law: that all formations are impermanent, that all formations are subject to suffering, that everything is without a self'' (A. III, 134).

"What do you think, o monks: Is corporeality (rūpa) permanent or impermanent? - Impermanent, o Venerable One. - Are feeling (vedanā), perception (saññā), mental formations (saṅkhāra) and consciousness (viññāṇa), permanent or impermanent? - Impermanent, o Venerable One.

"But that which is impermanent, is it something pleasant or painful? - It is painful, o Venerable One.

"But, of what is impermanent, painful and subject to change, could it be rightly said, 'This belongs to me, this am I, this is my ego'? - No, Venerable One.

"'I'herefore, whatever there is of corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness, whether past, present or future, one's own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, of all these things one should understand, according to reality and true wisdom: 'This does not belong to me, this am I not, this is not my ego' " (S. XXII, 59).

"In one who understands eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and all the remaining formations as impermanent, painful and not-self, in him the fetters (saṃyojana, q.v.) are dissolved" (S. XXXV, 53).

It is the full comprehension of the 3 characteristics by direct meditative experience which constitutes liberating insight. About their relation to the three gateways ot liberation', s. vimokkha I .

For further details, s. anicca, dukkha, anattā, vipassanā.

Literature: The Three Signata, by Prof. O. H. de A. Wijesekera (WHEEL 20). - The Three Basic Facts of Existence: I-III (WHEEL BPS), Vis.M. XX, 13ff. 18ff; XXI, 47f, 67f.

ti-piṭaka: ' T he Three Bascets', is the name for the 3 main divisions of the Pāḷi Canon: the Basket of Discipline (Vinaya Piṭaka), the Basket of Discourses (Sutta Piṭaka) and the Basket ot Philosophy (Abhidhamma Piṭaka).

tiracchāna-kathā: 'low talk', lit. 'beastly talk', is the name in the Sutta-texts for the following: "Talk about kings and robbers, ministers and armies, danger and war, eating and drinking, clothes and dwellings, garlands and scents, relations, chariots, villages and markets, towns and districts, women and heroes, street talks, talks by the well, talk about those departed in days gone by, tittle-tattle, talks about world and sea, about gain and loss" (A.X, 69 etc.).

In the commentaries 4 further kinds are enumerated, thus bringing the number to 32, as mostly counted, namely: talk about sensuous enjoyment, self-mortification, eternity and self-annihilation.

tiracchāna-yoni: 'animal womb'; birth as animal. The animal kingdom belongs to the sensuous world (s. loka), is one of the 4 lower worlds (s. apāya) and one of the 3 woeful courses of existence (s. gati).

tīraṇa-pariññā : 'full understanding by investigating'; s. pariññā .

ti-ratana: 'Three Jewels' or Three Gems, which by all Buddhists are revered as the most venerable things, are the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Holy Saṃgha.' i.e.: the Enlightened One; the law of deliverance discovered, realized and proclaimed by him; and the Community of Holy Disciples and those who live in accordance with the Law. - The contemplations of the 3 Jewels belong to the 10 contemplations (anussati q.v.).

ti-saraṇa: 'Threefold Refuge', in which every faithful adherent of the Buddha puts his whole trust, consists in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Saṃgha(s. prec.).

The Buddha, or Enlightened One, is the teacher who by himself has discovered, realized and proclaimed to the world the law of deliverance. The Dhamma is the law of deliverance. The Saṃgha is the community of the disciples, who have realized or are striving to realize the law of deliverance.

The 3-fold Refuge in Pāḷi, by the uttering of which one may also outwardly profess one's faith, is still the same as in the Buddha's time, namely:

Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
Dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
Saṃghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi

I take my refuge in the Buddha!
I take my refuge in the Dhamma!
I take my refuge in the Saṃgha!

Literature: The Threefold Refuge by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 76). - Devotion in Buddhism (WHEEL 18). Going for Refuge, by Bhikkhu Bodhi  (WHEEL 282/284) - Khp. Tr. pp. 4ff.

titthāyatana: the 3 'articles of (heretical) belief'. which in A. III, 61 are declared as leading to inactivity, are: (1) the belief that all happiness and woe are produced through former kamma (prenatal actions; s. kamma); (2) that everything is uncaused; (3) that everything is created by God.

(1) is the teaching of Niggaṇṭha-Nāthaputta, the leader of the Niggaṇṭhas, the modern Jains. The fault with this doctrine is that it does not account for that happiness and woe which either are the result of the present life's good or bad action, or are associated with the corresponding action. (2) is the doctrine of Makkhali Gosāla; s. diṭṭhi.

According to the above 3 doctrines, man is not responsible for his actions, so that all moral exertions become useless.

torpor: thīna, s. thīna-middha (q.v.).

training, the 3-fold: sikkhā (q.v.). - The steps of: sikkhāpada, (q.v.).

trance: jhāna (q.v.).

tranquillity (of mind): s. samatha, samatha-vipassanā, bhāvanā, bojjhaṅga. - 'One who has taken t. as his vehicle': samathayānika (q.v.).

tranquilisation, Overcoming (of defilements) by way of: s. pahāna.

transference of merit: patti-dāna(q.v.).

transformation, power of: s. iddhi.

transitoriness: anicca (q.v.).

treasures, the 7: s. dhana  (q.v.).

tree: Living under a tree is one of the ascetical practices (dhutaṅga, q.v.).

truths, the 4 Noble: sacca (q.v.). - 2-fold knowledge of the t.; s. saccañāṇa.

turning away, contemplation of the: vivaṭṭanupassanā; s. vipassanā.

Tusita: a class of heavenly beings in the sensuous plane; s. deva (1).

twin miracle: yamaka-pāṭihāriya (q.v.).

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