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ubhato-bhāga-vimutta: the 'both-ways-liberated one', is the name of one class of noble disciples (ariya-puggala, q.v.). He is liberated in 2 ways, namely, by way of all 8 absorptions (jhāna, q.v.) as well as by the supermundane path (Sotāpatti, etc.) based on insight (vipassanā, q.v.). In M. 70 it is said:

''Who, o monks, is a both-ways-liberated one'? If someone in his own person has reached the 8 liberations (absorptions), and through wise penetration the cankers (āsava, q.v.) have become extinguished, such a one is called a both-ways-liberated one.'' Cf. D. 15.

In the widest sense, one is both-ways-liberated if one has reached one or the other of the absorptions, and one or the other of the supermundane paths (cf. A. IX, 44).

The first liberation is also called 'liberation of mind' (cetovimutti), the latter liberation through wisdom' (paññā-vimutti).

The first liberation, however, is merely temporary, being a liberation through repression (vikkhambhana-vimutti = vikkhambhana-pahāna: s. pahāna).

uccheda-diṭṭhi: 'annihilation-view'; s. diṭṭhi.

udayabbayānupassanā-ñāṇa: 'knowledge consisting in the contemplation of rise and fall', is the first of the 9 insight-knowledges constituting the purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress'. For details, s. visuddhi, VI. 1.

uddhacca: 'restlessness', belongs to the 10 fetters (saṃyojana, q.v.), and to the 5 hindrances (nīvaraṇa, q.v.). It is one of those 4 mental factors inseparably associated with all unwholesome consciousness (akusala-sādhārana , q.v.). Cf. Tab. II.

uddhambhāgiya-saṃyojana: the 5 'higher fetters'; s. saṃyojana.

uddhamsota-akaṇiṭṭhagāmī: 'passing upstream to the highest gods', is one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners (Anāgāmī, q.v.).

uggaha-nimitta: s. nimitta.

ugghaṭitaññu: 'one who already during a given explanation comes to penetrate the truth' (Pug.). This is one of four types of persons classified according to their ability of acquiring insight, mentioned in A. IV, 133. Cf. also vipacitaññu, neyya, pada-parama. See The Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEEL 171/174) p. 1ff.

ujukatā : (kāya-, citta- ): 'uprightness' (of mental factors and of consciousness), is associated with all pure consciousness. Cf. Tab. II.

unconditioned, the: asaṅkhata (q.v.). - Contemplation of the u. (= animitta ); s. vipassanā.

unconscious beings: asaññā-satta (q.v.).

understanding: s. diṭṭhi, ñāṇa, paññā, pariññā . - Right u., s. magga (1). sacca (IV.1).

unit: s. kalāpa, rūpa-kalāpa.

unprepared, unprompted: s. asaṅkhārika-citta.

unshakable deliverance: s. cetto-vimutti.

unshakable one, the: akuppa-dhamma (q.v.).

unthinkable things, the 4: acinteyya  (q.v.).

unwholesome, kammically: akusala(q.v.).

upacāra: 'moment of access'; s. javana.

upacāra-samādhi: 'neighbourhood or access-concentrationn', is the degree of concentration just before entering any of the absorptions, or jhānas. It still belongs to the sensuous sphere (kāmāvacara ; s. avacara).

upacaya, rūpassa: 'growth of corporeality'; s. khandha I; App.

upacchedaka kamma: 'destructive kamma'; s. kamma.

upādāna: 'clinging', according to Vis.M. XVII, is an intensified degree of craving (taṇhā, q.v.). The 4 kinds of clinging are: sensuous clinging (kāmupādāna), clinging to views (diṭṭhupādāna), clinging to mere rules and ritual (sīlabbatupādāna), clinging to the personaljty-belief (atta-vādupādāna).

(1) "What now is the sensuous clinging? Whatever with regard to sensuous objects there exists of sensuous lust, sensuous desire, sensuous attachment, sensuous passion, sensuous deludedness, sensuous fetters: this is called sensuous clinging.

(2) ''What is the clinging to views? 'Alms and offerings are useless; there is no fruit and result for good and bad deeds: all such view and wrong conceptions are called the clinging to views.

(3) "What is the clinging to mere rules and ritual? The holding firmly to the view that through mere rules and ritual one may reach purification: this is called the clinging to mere rules and ritual.

(4) "What is the clinging to the personality-belief? The 20 kinds of ego-views with regard to the groups of existence (s. sakkāya-diṭṭhi): these are called the clinging to the personality-belief" (Dhs. 1214-17).

This traditional fourfold division of clinging is not quite satisfactory. Besides kamupādāna we should expect either rūpupādāna and arūpupādāna, or simply bhavupādāna. Though the Anāgāmī is entirely free from the traditional 4 kinds of upādāna, he is not freed from rebirth, as he still possesses bhavupādāna. The Com. to Vis.M. XVII, in trying to get out of this dilemma, explains kāmupādāna as including here all the remaining kinds of clinging.

"Clinging' is the common rendering for u., though 'grasping' would come closer to the literal meaning of it, which is 'uptake'; s. Three Cardinal Discourses (WHEEL 17), p.19.

upādāna-kkhandha: the 5 'groups of clinging', or more clearly stated in accordance with Vis.M., 'the 5 groups of existence which form the objects of clinging'. Cf. M. 44, and see khandha.

upādā-rūpa: 'derived corporeality', signifies the 24 secondary corporeal phenomena dependent on the 4 primary physical elements, i.e. the sense-organs and sense-objects, etc. See khandha I; App.

upadhi: 'substratum of existence'. In the Com. there are enumerated 4 kinds: the 5 groups (khandha, q.v.), sensuous desire (kāma), mental defilements (kilesa, q.v.), kamma (q.v.). In the Suttas it occurs frequently in Sn. (vv. 33, 364, 546, 728), and, with reference to Nibbāna, in the phrase "the abandoning of all substrata" (sabbūpadhi-paṭinissaggānupassanā; D. 14). See viveka  (3).

upādi: lit. 'something which one grasps, to which one clings, i.e. the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.). In the Suttas , the word is mostly used in such expressions as "One of the 2 fruits may be expected: either perfect wisdom or, if the groups are still remaining (sati upādi-sese, 'if there is a remainder of groups ), Anāgāmīship" (D. 22). Further (A. IV. 118): "Here the Perfect One has passed into the Nibbāna-element in which no more groups are remaining (anupādi-sesa)." Cf. Nibbāna.

upādinna-rūpa: 'kammically acquired corporeality', or 'matter clung-to (by kamma)', is identical with kamma-produced corporeality (kammaja-rūpa; s. samuṭṭhāna). In Vis.M. XIV it is said: "That corporcality which, later on, we shall refer to as 'kamma-produced' (kammaja), is, for its being dependent on previous (pre-natal) kamma, called 'kammically acquired'. '' The term (upādinna) occurs so in the Suttas , e.g. M. 28 (WHEEL 101), 62, 140. See Dhs. §990; Khandha Vibh.

upaghāṭaka-kamma: 'destructive kamma'; s. kamma.

upahacca-parinibbāyī: 'one who reaches Nibbāna within the first half of life', is one of the 5 kinds of Anāgāmī (q.v.).

upakkilesa : 'impurities', corruptions, imperfections (a frequent rendering by 'defilements' is better reserved for kilesa, q.v.).

A list of 16 moral 'impurities of the mind' (cittassa upakkilesa ) is mentioned and explained in M. 7 & 8 (WHEEI. 61/62): 1. covetousness and unrighteous greed (abhijjhā-visamalobha), 2. ill will (byāpāda), 3. anger (kodha), 4. hostility (upanāha), 5. denigration (makkha), 6. domineering (palāsa), 7. envy (issā), 8. stinginess (macchariya), 9. hypocrisy (māyā), 10. fraud (sāṭheyya), 11. obstinacy (thambha), 12. presumption (sārambha), 13. conceit (māna), 14. arrogance (atimāna), 15. vanity (mada), 16. negligence (pamāda).

There are 3 groups of upakkilesa  pertaining to meditation:

(a) 9 mental imperfections occurring in 'one devoted to higher mental training' (adhicitta); 3 coarse ones - evil conduct in deeds, words and thoughts; 3 medium - thoughts of sensual desire, ill will and cruelty; 3 subtle - thoughts about one's relatives, one's country and one's reputation (A. III, 100).

(b) 18 imperfections in the practice of mindfulness of breathing (ānāpāna-sati, q.v.), mentioned in Pts.M., Ānāpāna-kathā (tr. in Mindfulness of Breathing, by Ñāṇamoli Thera (p. 60; BPS).

(c) 10 'imperfections of insight' (-meditation, vipassanūpakkilesa); s. visuddhi V.

upanissaya-paccaya: 'decisive support' or 'inducement', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

upapajja-vedanīya kamma: 'kamma ripening in the next birth'; s. kamma.

upapatti-bhava: 'rebirth-process'; s. bhava.

upapīḷaka kamma: 'suppressive kamma'; s. kamma.

upāsaka: lit. 'sitting close by', i.e. a 'lay adherent', is any lay follower who is filled with faith and has taken refuge in the Buddha, his doctrine and his community of noble disciples (A. VIII, 25). His virtue is regarded as pure if he observes the 5 Precepts (pañca-sīla; s. sikkhāpada). He should avoid the following wrong ways of livelihood: trading in arms, in living beings, meat, alcohol and poison (A. V, 177). See also A. VIII, 75.

upasamānussati: 'recollection of the peace of Nibbāna', is the last of the 10 recollections (anussati, q.v.). "Whatsoever, o monks, there are of things, as highest of them is considered detachment (virāga), i.e. the crushing of conceit, the stilling of thirst, the uprooting of clinging, the breaking through the round of rebirths, cessation of craving, detachment, extinction, Nibbāna" (A. IV, 34).

upāsikā: 'female adherent'; s. upāsaka.

upatthambhaka kamma: 'supportive kamma'; s. kamma.

upavicāra: s. manopavicāra.

upekkhā: 'equanimity', also called tatra-majjhattatā  (q.v.), is an ethical quality belonging to the saṅkhāra-group (s. khandha) and should therefore not be confounded with indifferent feeling (adukkha-m-asukhā  vedanā) which sometimes also is called upekkhā (s. vedanā).

upekkhā is one of the 4 sublime abodes (brahma-vihāra, q.v.), and of the factors of enlightenment (bojjhaṅga, q.v.). See Vis.M. IV, 156ff.

upekkhā-ñāṇa = saṅkhārupekkhā-ñāṇa (q.v.).

upekkhā-sambojjhaṅga: 'equanimity as factor of enlightenment'; s. bojjhaṅga.

upekkhā-sukha: 'equanimous happiness,' is the feeling of happiness accompanied by a high degree of equanimity (upekkhā) as, e.g. in the 3rd absorption (jhāna q.v.).

upekkhā-vedanā: s. vedanā.

upekkhindriya: the 'faculty of indifference', is one of the 5 elements of feeling (M. 115) and therefore not to be confounded with the ethical quality 'equanimity', also called upekkhā (q.v.).

upekkhopavicāra: 'indulging in indifference'; s. manopavicāra.

uposatha: lit. 'fasting', i.e. 'fasting day', is the full-moon day, the new-moon day, and the two days of the first and last moonquarters. On full-moon and new-moon days, the Disciplinary Code, the Pātimokkha, is read before the assembled community of monks (bhikkhu), while on the mentioned 4 moon-days many of the faithful lay devotees go to visit the monasteries, and there take upon themselves the observance of the 8 rules (attha-sīla; sikkhāpada). See A. VIII, 41ff.

uprightness: ujukatā  q.v.

upstream to the highest gods, passing: s. Anāgāmī.

usages, the 4 noble: ariya-vaṃsa (q.v.).

utu: temperature, heat, is identical with the heat-element (tejodhātu, q.v.).

utu-samuṭṭhāna (- utuja)-rūpa: 'corporeality produced by temperature'; s. samuṭṭhāna.

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